12 Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRIMore detailed picture of brain using magnetic field to knock electrons off axis. Shows the structure of the brainTakes many still pictures and turns images into a movie like production.Does not study function!
14 Positron Emission Tomography PET Scan: depicts brain activity by showing each brain areas’ use of its chemical fuelMeasures how much of a chemical the brain is using (usually glucose consumption). Also shows activity of the brainGood for studying function.
20 Dr. Jones, a brain researcher, is investigating the connection between certain environmental stimuli and brain processes. Which types of brain scans is she most likely to use?A. MRI and CATB. CAT and EKGC. PET and fMRID. EKG and CATE. lesioning and MRI
21 The answer was C. The CAT and the MRI give insight into brain structure, not function.
22 Brain Structures Hindbrain/brain stem Midbrain/limbic system Forebrain/cerebral cortexCerebral cortex is part of forebrain
23 The brain was builtlike a house, bottomto top.The hindbrain controlsbasic functions like breathing. Shared with animalsThe forebrain is themost complex
24 Hindbrain Structures on top of our spinal cord. Controls basic biological structures.All animals have hindbrains!The brain in purple makes up the hindbrain.
25 Medulla Oblongata Located just above the spinal cord. Involved in control ofblood pressureheart ratebreathing. (basic stuff!)
26 Pons Located just above the medulla. Connects hindbrain with midbrain and forebrain. Helps coordinate movementsInvolved in facial expressions.Bladder control, eye movement, posture, hearing and more
27 Cerebellum Bottom rear of the brain. Means “little brain” Coordinates fine muscle movements and balance. Kicking a goal in soccer
28 What is reticular formation? Part of brain – affects consciousness. Sleep meds affect this part of the brain. Damage leads to a coma. Controls arousal and ability to focus attention
29 MidbrainConsists of the thalamusCerebellum and the Limbic system
31 The Limbic System deals with memory and emotions
32 Thalamus Switchboard “relay station” of the brain. Receives sensory signals from the spinal cord and sends them to other parts of the forebrain.Every sense except smell.
33 Hypothalamus Maybe most important structure in the brain. Controls and regulates the temperature, hunger, thirstControls the endocrine system. All the glandsThe most powerful structure in the brain.
34 Rat with an Implanted Electrode in pleasure center of Hypothalamus
35 Ventromedial Hypothalamus Lateral HypothalamusVentromedial HypothalamusWhen stimulated it makes you hungry.When lesioned (destroyed) you will never be hungry again.Larger HungerWhen stimulated you feel fufull.When lesioned you will never feel fullulagain.Very Minute Hunger
36 Hippocampus Involved in the processing and storage of memories. Its proximity to your emotional centers explains why memories and emotions are so linked!
40 The Cerebral CortexMade up of densely packed neurons we call “gray matter”Wrinkles are called fissures.If you lay brain out it would be as big as a large pizza.It’s divided into 2 hemispheres and 4 lobes!Left and right hemispheres
41 Cerebral CortexWhat makes us human, animals without a large cortex act on instinctCc contains billion nerve cells300 trillion synaptic connectionsGlial cells support these nerve cells. Neurons are like queen bees they cannot feed or protect themselves glial cells worker bees they provide nutrients, and insulating myelin, mop up neurotransmitters , chat with neurons
42 The Cerebral Cortex is made up of four Lobes. Label your brain outline!
43 What are Frontal Lobes?Abstract thought and emotional control and planning.Contains Motor Cortex, Broca’s area.Lobotomies damage this.Suppresses the Amygdala.
44 What is the motor cortex? Part of the brain in the frontal lobe that tells my body how to move (like typing this).
45 What is the sensory cortex? It’s the part that deals with touch sensations. It’sIn the parietal lobe.
46 What are Motor and Sensory Cortexes? The wires are switched! Right controls left!The motor cortex is in which lobe?
47 Sensory homunculus A visual representation of how much space your brain needs to operate parts of your body. Notice how big the face and hands are. How small everything else is!
50 Parietal LobesContain Sensory Cortex: receives incoming touch sensations from rest of the body.Most of the Parietal Lobes are made up of Association Areas.Where would this girl feel the most pain from her sunburn?
51 Occipital Lobes Think “optical”. Contains Visual Cortex: interprets messages from our eyes into images we can understand.
52 Notice how close the auditory cortex is to the ears.
53 Association areasAbout ¾ of the brain which is not involved in the sensory or motor activityAssociation areas integrate informationThese areas link sensory inputs with stored memories –Very importantFound in all 4 lobesIn frontal lob association areas allow us to learn, judge and process new memories but damage would not allow you to plan ahead
54 Association Areas continued In parietal lobes assoc. areas allow us to use math and spatial reasoning, recognize faces
56 Temporal Lobes Process sound sensed by our ears. Interpreted in Auditory Cortex.NOT LATERALIZED.Sound goes to both temporal lobes
57 Aphasia- impaired use of language Broca’s area – production of speech think (boca) (left side of the frontal lobe).Struggle to speak but can sing and comprehendAngular gyrus- speak and understand cannot read aloudWernicke’s area deals with comprehension of language. Speak meaningless words also disrupts comprehensionWhich side of brain are we seeing?
62 Brain Activity when Hearing, Seeing, and Speaking Words Which side of the brain are we seeing?
63 Brain PlasticityThe idea that the brain, when damaged, will attempt to find news ways to reroute messages.Children’s brains are more plastic than adults.Neurogenesis- the ability of the brain to make new neurons
65 Neurons’ ability to re-route their messaging in case of injury. Brain plasticityNeurons’ ability to re-route their messaging in case of injury.
66 When brain researchers refer to brain plasticity, they are talking about A. the brain’s ability to quickly regrow damaged neuronsB. the surface texture and appearance caused by the layer known as the cerebral cortexC. the brain’s versatility caused by the millions of neural connectionsD. our adaptability to different problems ranging from survival needs to abstract reasoningE. new connections forming in the brain to take over for damaged sections
67 Demonstration: Any volunteers? What is Split Brain?Demonstration: Any volunteers?
72 Split Brain PatientsThose who, due to epilepsy, have their corpus callosum cut or removed.
73 Visual InformationVisual information directed to each side of the brain comes from visual fields not from the eyes. The left eye does not send information to the right hemisphere and vice versa. The RIGHT HALVES of each eye send information to the right hemisphere and vice versa
75 A Tour Through The Brain: Split-Brain Research (Continued)
76 Split Brain Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aCv4K5aStdU
77 Experiment #1 Split-brain patients Experimenter shows fork to left hemisphere (presents to the right side)Participant is asked what he saw…He states “fork”Experimenter shows spoon to right hemisphereParticipant is asked what he sawResponse: “I don’t know”Participant is asked to reach in a bag with left hand (right hemisphere) to retrieve what he sawHe pulls out a spoon…explain?
78 Other weird issues with split-brain A split-brain patient was asked what he wanted to do with his life…Left hemisphere wrote: architectRight hemisphere wrote: race car driverSuicide case studyLeft hand (right hemisphere) kept trying to strangle herselfLeft hemisphere was unaware of why this was happening and had to defend herselfTumor was discovered on her corpus collosum
79 On the next slide, say the COLOR of the word without reading the word.
81 Right-Left Brain Differences for the rest of us with intact brains Right Brain:Perceptual tasks Making inferencesSense of selfProblem seeing other people in relation to themselvesCannot recognize themselves in a mirrorLeft BrainSpeaksCalculatesLiteral interpretation in languageSign language included
82 Brain and Consciousness What is consciousness? Evolutionary psychologist believe it must be involved with reproduction or survivalBut how do brain cells talk to one another?No clue how the brain creates consciousnessCognitive neuroscience- science of brain activities connected to mental processes
83 Studies show if you imagine doing something an fMRI of your brain indicates activity We have dual processing- 2 minds operate at the same time conscious mind (explicit) mind and your unconscious mind (implicit)Much of our thinking operate outside of our awareness