3 Hochschild: Emotion Work Emotion Work: the management of one’s own feelings in an effort to maintain the well being of a relationship. Also involves the orientation of self to others to fit with accepted norms of emotional expression.TypesEvoking emotionSuppressing emotionTechniquesCognitiveBodilyEmotionEmotion Labor: The same as emotional labor but rather emotions are regulated by workers because of expectations to display certain emotions as part of their jobFeeling Rules:“fake it till you make it”Men need to be strong, brave and machoWomen need to be happy and perkyYou know you have the correct or incorrect emotions by how others react to youExamples: showing affection, apologizing after an argument, making sure the home runs smoothlyEmotion workSee wonser’s blog
4 Hochschild: Emotion Work Answer:1: Feeling rules2: original emotion labor was done on airplane stewardesses.3: distant father = emotion work, because that’s what fathers should be, emotionally distantEmotion workSee wonser’s blogWhat types of emotion work do these represent?
5 Goffman: Gender Display Main IdeasGender is a collective performance“Gender Advertisements”The outward depiction of gender is maintained through the way it is expressedArgued advertisements do not look strange to us when they should. They take something that exists already in the world and change it, forming a distorted reflectionGendered relations and roles of femininity and masculinity are learned through advertisements*“The Arrangement between the Sexes”Often gender performances are framed as coming from within an individual but Goffman believed:Social spaces and relations are gendered in ways that produce gendered performance (not the other way around)Social interactions, spaces and institutions have been constructed in ways that highlight gender differencesWhat is the problem with with learning gender through advertisements?Answer:if advertisements are giving you a distorted reflection of how to express gender, then if you learn gender from the advertisements then you are learning distorted expressions of genderDoing gender and emotion and gender displaysSee wonser’s blogAnecdotes:*Goffman’s Restrooms: sex segrigation in public restrooms creates gendered differences. There are no urinals in most home restaurants
6 Heterosexism vs. Heteronormativity Heterosexism: the belief that heterosexuality is normal and the normOften considered the norm and thus superiorHeteronormativity: the social setting that normalizes heterosexualityPopularized in 1991 when the term was used in one of the first major queer theory publicationsInvolves the alignment of biological sex, sexuality, gender identity gender roles and gendered expressionWhat ways are heterosexuality displayed to others? If these displays don’t mesh with what observers perceive their gender to be, how could this be perceived as disturbing?Answer:Through emotions, feelings and actions
7 HomophobiaHomophobia: the negative attitudes and feelings toward individuals who identify or are perceived as being homosexual, bisexual or transgenderedOvertHate crimes / violenceCovertDiscrimination through hiring practices*Internalized homophobia: negative stereotypes, beliefs, stigmas and prejudices about homosexuality that people with same-sex attractions turn inward toward themselvesFeels the need to promote or confirm to cultural expectations of heteronormativity or heterosexismRepression of emotionsForced outward displays of heteronormative behavior to appear “normal” and be “accepted”Making assumptions about a persons romantic partner or gender role* In 1991 Cracker Barrel restaurant fired an employee who did not repersent the company’s values of being engaged in a heteronormative relationship
8 Queer TheoryQueer Theory: “Because the logic of the sexual order is so deeply embedded by now in an indescribably wide range of social intuitions, and is embedded in the most standard accounts of the world, queer struggles aim not just at toleration of equal status but at challenging those intuitions and accounts. The drawing realization that themes of homophobia and heterosexism may be read in almost any document of our culture means that we are only beginning to have an idea of how widespread those intuitions and accounts are” – Michael Warner*Views gender categories as not fixed, unable to be categorized and labeledFocuses on a critique of social boundaries and the mechanisms that produce themNormative vs. deviant behavior*Because queer theory circumvents (goes around) categorical definitions it is difficult to properly define itQueer theory’s assertation that no sexuality is normal
9 Kinsey’s Sexual Spectrum The Kinsey ScaleDeveloped in 1948 to account for research showing that people did not fit into neat and exclusive heterosexual and homosexual categories – many individuals reported their sexual behavior and attractions somewhere in betweenThe spectrum0 - exclusively heterosexual with no experience or desire for sexual activity with the same sex6 - exclusively homosexual with no experience with or desire for sexual activity with those of the opposite sex1-5 - identify themselves with varying levels of desire or sexual activitye.g.: a note of caution.
10 Kinsey’s Sexual Spectrum DataMen:Nearly 46% of the male population has engaged in both heterosexual and homosexual activities, or “reacted to” persons of both sexes in the course of their adult lives0% American males were more or less exclusively homosexual for at least 3 years between the ages of 16 and 55 (range of 5-6)Women:Kinsey found only a very small portion of females with exclusively homosexual histories14% of females aged had more than incidental homosexual experiences in their histories7% of single females aged and 4% of previously married females aged were given a rating of 3 for this period of their lives*2-5% of females aged were given a rating of 51-3% of unmarried females aged were rated as 6Hardly anyone scores a 0 on the Kinsey Sexual spectrum* A 3 is about equal parts heterosexual and homosexual experiences / responsese.g.: a note of caution.
11 BehaviorsHow are each of these behaviors related to our discussion on gender, sexuality and emotion?SextingPhone calls when datingHardcore female sports fansMale and female friendship sans sexual attractionMen publicly cryingA customer service representative dealing with returns after the holidaysA same sex couple visiting family for the holidays under the guise of best friends_______________________________________________________________________Key concepts to consider:Moral panicEmotion workEmotion laborFeeling rulesSexting: sexting doesn't happen in isolation or necessarily 'lead to' real-world sex, but rather the new technology i merely being used to do old things. Over hyped resulting in moral panicPhone calls when datingHarcore female sports fansMale and female friendships sans sexual attractionMen publicly cryingHeterosexismHeteronormativityHomophobia