2 LanguageLanguage is a form of communication in which sounds and symbols are combined according to formal rulesPhonemes are the basic speech sounds (English has phonemes)Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units of languageGrammar provides rules for a languageSyntax refers to the rules for word order in a sentenceSemantics refers to a system of using words to create meanings
3 Language & ThoughtWhorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis theorizes that language determines our perceptions of realityResearchers suggest that language influences the nature of one’s thought
4 Language DevelopmentPrelinguistic stage- begins with reflexive cry, then crying becomes more purposefulCooing- producing vowel-like soundsBabbling- adding consonants to vowelsLinguistic stage- babbling begins to sound more like the language in the child’s homeOverextensionTelegraphic speechOvergeneralization
5 Theories of Language Development Is language capability innate or learned (Skinner v. Chomsky… Behaviorism v. Nativist)?Language Acquisition Device- an innate mechanism, hypothesized by Chomsky, that enables a child to analyze language and extract the basic rules of grammarMost researchers believe that language acquisition is a combination of nature and nurture (Interactionist).
6 Animal Language Animals are capable of limited communication Language in animals is not comparable to human languageApes lack appropriate vocal cords for generation of speechApes can be trained to use non-vocal sign languageWashoe acquired American Sign LanguageDolphins can be trained to respond to hand signals and to vocal commandsAnimal language lacks complexity and syntax
7 Language and the BrainThere may be critical periods of language developmentBroca’s area is involved in speech and language productionSupramarginal gyrus combines word meaning with the production of words
8 ThinkingThe processing of information to solve problems and make judgments and decisions
9 The Journey… Problem Solving Thinking Under Uncertainty Intelligent Thinking
10 Problem Solving PROBLEM: A situation in which there is a goal, but it is not clear how to reach the goalA well-defined problem is one with clear specifications of the start state (where you are), goal state (where you want to be) and the processes for reaching the goal state (how to get there)An ill-defined problem is a problem lacking clear specification of the start state, goal state, or the processes for reaching the goal state
11 Interpreting the problem Trying to solve the problem Problem SolvingInvolves two steps...Interpreting the problemTrying to solve the problem
12 Blocks to Problem Solving Interpretation blocksFixation is the inability to create a new interpretation of a problemFor instance, in the 9-dot problem, the directions do not say one cannot go “outside” the mental square formed by the 9 dots
13 Blocks to Problem Solving Interpretation blocksFunctional fixedness is the inability to see that an object can have a function other than its typical oneFor example, if you need a screwdriver but don’t have one, a dime could be used to serve the purpose of a screwdriverLimits our ability to solve problems that require using an object in a novel wayTo combat functional fixedness, you should systematically think about the possible novel uses of all the various objects in the problem environment
14 Blocks to Problem Solving Strategy blocksOur past experience with problem solving can lead us to mental set, the tendency to use previously successful solution strategies without considering others that are more appropriate for the current problemSometimes when searching for new approaches to a problem, we may experience insight, a new way of interpreting a problem that immediately gives you the solution
15 Overcoming BlocksTo combat the blocks in problems solving, ask yourself questions such as:Is my interpretations of the problem unnecessarily constraining possible solutions?Can I use any of the objects in the problem in novel ways to solve the problem?Do I need a new type of solution strategy?
17 AlgorithmA step-by-step procedure that guarantees a correct answer to a problemFor example, using multiplication correctly guarantees you the correct solution to a multiplication problem
18 HeuristicA solution strategy that seems reasonable given your past experiences with solving problems, especially similar problemsMay pay off with a quick correct answer, but it may lead to no answer or an incorrect one
19 Types of HeuristicsThe anchoring and adjustment heuristic uses an initial estimate as an anchor and then this anchor is adjusted up or downFor instance, when meeting a new person, your first impression forms an anchor of that person, and you may not process subsequent information about that person as fully as it should be processed
20 Types of HeuristicsThe working backward heuristic is attempting to solve a problem by working from the goal state backward to the start stateFor instance, consider the following situation: Water lilies growing in a pond double in area every 24 hours. On the first day of spring, only one lily pad is on the surface of the pond. Sixty days later, the entire pond is covered. On what day is the pond half covered?”If you work backward with the fact the pond is completely covered on the 60th day, you can solve this question easily…half of the pond must be covered on the 59th day.
21 Types of HeuristicsThe means-ends analysis heuristic is breaking down the problem into subgoals and working toward decreasing the distance to the goal state by achieving these subgoalsFor example, when trying to write a major term paper, students should be encouraged (and perhaps shown) how to break down this big task into smaller tasks that, when completed, will result in a final, large term paper
23 Algorithms vs. Heuristics When going through a new grocery store looking for pickles, you could go up and down every aisle, examining each product until you found the picklesThis would be using an algorithmOr, you could look at the signs above the aisles and look for the word “Condiments” and assume that pickles will be on that aisleThis would be using a heuristic
24 Probability and Uncertainty The probability of an event is the likelihood that it will happenProbabilities range from 0 (never happen) to 1 (always happens)An event with 0.5 probability of occurring is maximally uncertain because it is equally likely to occur and not to occurIn addition to judging the uncertainty of events in our environment, we attempt to reduce our uncertainty about the world by trying to find out how various events are related to each other
25 The Represen- tativeness Heuristic The Availability Heuristic Judging ProbabilityTwo main heuristics we use to make judgments about probabilities...The Represen- tativeness HeuristicThe Availability Heuristic
26 The Representativeness Heuristic A rule of thumb for judging the probability of membership in a category by how well an object resembles (i.e., is representative of) that categoryThe more representative the object is, the more probableYou hear about a person who likes to write, read, and interpret poetry. Is it more likely that this person is:A hockey fan? ORAn English professor who likes hockey?We tend to use the representativeness heuristic because the mind categorizes information automatically
27 The Conjunction Fallacy The conjunction rule states that the likelihood of the overlap of two uncertain events cannot be greater than the likelihood of either of the two events because the overlap is only part of each eventThe conjunction fallacy, which can occur when we use the representativeness heuristic, is incorrectly judging the overlap of two uncertain events to be more likely than either of the two events