Presentation on theme: "Learning Objectives State the importance of communication with older adults. Identify effective and ineffective communication strategies. Understand how."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 4: Therapeutic Communication with Older Adults, Families and Caregivers
2 Learning ObjectivesState the importance of communication with older adults.Identify effective and ineffective communication strategies.Understand how normal and pathological changes of aging affect communication. Describe communication strategies for older adults with common normal and pathological changes of aging.Describe person-centered communication.
3 Communication BasicsHow we provide and receive information from othersConveys a message between a sender and a receiverDynamic: ongoing exchange of information with feedbackRelies on intact senses, physical and cognitive processes needed to send and receive messages, and a conducive environment.Verbal: relies on knowledge of a common language as well as the ability to produce words.Nonverbal: includes tone of voice and physical behaviors such as body language and eye contact.
4 Person-Centered Communication Integral part of person-centered careFocus on the patient and their unique perceptions and experiences with health and illnessNursing interventions include providing information to promote health and healing and to engage patients in self-careConfirms uniqueness of the patient and allows the patient to participate in his or her own care.
5 Communication Obstacles Facing Older Adults Lack of opportunity for communication and declining social networksRetirementSpouses and friends dieChildren move awayPhysical or mental impairments interfere with ability to communicate
6 Strategies for Communication with Persons with Dementia that Support Personhood (Table 4-1, page 100)Recognition: acknowledge uniquenessNegotiation: consult the person about preferences, desires, and needs.Validation: acknowledge the person’s emotions/ feelings and respond.Facilitation/Collaboration: work together, involve the person.
7 Intergenerational Communication ElderspeakSimilar to babytalkSimplification: measurable reductions in complexity of grammar and vocabularyClarification strategies: adding repetitions and stressing and altering the pitch of one’s speech, resulting in speech that is overly caring and controlling and less respectful than normal adult-to-adult speech. figure 4-1, p. 101
8 Cultural Competence and Health Literacy Teach-back methodpatients repeat back the information they have receivedeasy and effective method to assess comprehension of health teachingCommunication in end-of-life caremay be complicated by emotional distress and prior relationships with family and significant othersmay be especially difficult when the news is bad or when patient's or families' listening skills are poor.
9 Changes Throughout the Typical Aging Process There are numerous age-related factors that affect communication.Vision changes: presbyopia - “aging-eye”Hearing changes: presbycusis – “old man’s hearing”Dual sensory impairment: loss in both vision and hearingCognition changesShort-term memoryLong-term memory
10 Pathological Changes Affecting Cognition, Speech, Language DementiaMemory loss accompanied by speech and language impairments and/or decline in executive functioningAlzheimer’s most common form of dementiaSpeech and Languagerate of speech slows with declining cognition and/or lost teeth or ill-fitting denturescomprehension may decline with hearing, vision, or sensory loss, cognitive changes, and emotional factorsAphasia is an acquired language impairment and occurs when there is damage to language center in the brain.
11 Strategies to Aid Individuals with Communication Impairments Compensatory strategies: technological devicesRehabilitative strategies: practice repeatedlyEffective communication strategiesVisionHearingCognitionSpeech and language impairmentTable 4-2, P
12 Communicating with Others Families and significant others:Nurses can support family members, assist them to overcome communication barriersNurses must be aware of the need to include older adult in communication regarding health matters as much as possible.Permission to communicate about health issues with others is a key privacy issue complicated by impairmentsProfessional and Nonprofessional CaregiversTreat others with respect and be good role model for paraprofessionals
13 SummaryMany older adults may have significant sensory or cognitive impairments that affect their ability to communicate.Nurses can use techniques to facilitate appropriate communication.Health literacy should be considered when planning teaching or educational materials.
14 QuestionYounger people often modify and simplify their speech when talking to older adult patients, resulting in communication that is similar to baby talk, featuring terms of endearment and tag questions that prompt for a response. The term for this type of speech is ________.oldstertalkagespeakelderspeakeldertalk