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1. The European explorers who followed Columbus to North America

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1 1. The European explorers who followed Columbus to North America
A) intended to found a new nation. B) continued to view themselves as Europeans. C) did not consider America as the western rim of the European world. D) no longer saw themselves as subjects of European kings. E) saw little difference in their lives in America and their lives in Europe. Ans: B

2 2. The colonists who ultimately embraced the vision of America as an independent nation had in common all of the following characteristics except A) the desire to create an agricultural society. B) learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of royal authority. C) learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of official religion. D) an unwillingness to subjugate others. E) learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of social hierarchies. Ans: D

3 3. The ideals that the colonists cherished as synonymous with American life included reverence for all of the following except A) individual liberty. B) self-government. C) opposition to slavery. D) religious tolerance. E) economic opportunity. Ans: C

4 4. By the 1770s which of the following issues helped bring about a crisis of imperial authority?
A) trade restrictions B) slavery C) few colonists clung to any hope of accommodation with Great Britain D) the coronation of a new king E) the rise to power of radical patriots in the American colonies Ans: A

5 5. The existence of a single original continent has been proved by the presence of
A) similar mountain ranges on the various continents. B) the discovery of nearly identical species of fish in long-separated freshwater lakes of various continents. C) the discovery of marsupials on the various continents. D) the continued shifting of the earth's crust. E) all of the above. Ans: B

6 6. Which of the following mountain ranges was probably created before the continental separation approximately 350 million years ago? A) the Rockies B) the Sierra Nevada C) the Cascades D) the Coast Range E) the Appalachians Ans: E

7 7. Which of the following was not a feature created in North America ten thousand years ago when the glaciers retreated? A) the Great Lakes B) the Great Salt Lake C) a mineral-rich desert D) thousands of shallow depressions which formed lakes E) the Grand Canyon Ans: E

8 8. The Great Ice Age accounted for the origins of North America's human history because
A) it exposed a land bridge connecting Eurasia with North America. B) the glacial withdrawal allowed migration from South America. C) the glacial withdrawal formed freshwater lakes that supported life. D) when it ended European migration to the west became possible. E) it prevented the migration of dangerous animals from the Bering isthmus. Ans: A

9 9. Most likely the first Americans were
A) Vikings from Scandinavia. B) Spanish explorers of the fifteenth century. C) people who crossed the land bridge from Eurasia to North America. D) Portuguese sailors of Prince Henry the Navigator. E) refugees from Africa. Ans: C

10 10. In 1492, when Europeans arrived in the Americas, the total of the two continents' populations was perhaps A) 20 million. B) 54 million. C) 50 million. D) 4 million. E) 200 million. Ans: B

11 11. Some of the more advanced Native American cultures did all of the following except
A) engage in significant ocean voyages of discovery. B) establish large, bustling cities. C) make strikingly accurate astronomical observations. D) study mathematics. E) carry on commerce. Ans: A

12 12. The size and sophistication of Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America can be attributed to A) Spanish influences. B) their way of life based on hunting and gathering. C) the development of agriculture. D) influences brought by early settlers from Siberia. E) their use of draft animals and the wheel. Ans: C

13 13. All of the following are true of the Inca, Mayan, and Aztec civilizations except
A) they had advanced agricultural practices based primarily on the cultivation of maize. B) they lacked the technology of the wheel. C) they had the use of large draft animals such as the horse and oxen. D) they built elaborate cities and carried on far-flung commerce. E) they had talented mathematicians, which allowed them to make accurate astronomical observations. Ans: C

14 14. The crop that became the staple of life in Mexico and South America was
A) wheat. B) potatoes. C) tobacco. D) corn. E) beans. Ans: D

15 15. Native American (Indian) civilization was least highly developed in
A) North America. B) Mexico. C) Central America. D) Peru. E) Latin America. Ans: A

16 16. One of the main factors that enabled Europeans to conquer native North Americans with relative ease was A) the pacifistic nature of the native North Americans. B) the settled agricultural societies of North America. C) the absence of dense concentrations of population or complex nation-states in North America. D) the use of native guides. E) all of the above. Ans: C

17 17. At the time of the European colonization of North America the number of Indian tribes was estimated at approximately A) 100. B) 500. C) 1,000. D) 50. E) 200. Ans: E

18 18. The development of “three sister” farming on the southeast Atlantic seaboard
A) led to the dominance of the potato. B) enabled the Anasazis to prosper. C) ultimately failed to produce adequate amounts of food. D) was attributed to three young women of the Cherokee peoples. E) produced a rich diet that led to high population densities. Ans: E

19 19. Before the arrival of Columbus, most native peoples in North America
A) lived in large communities. B) were more advanced than those in South America. C) lived in small, scattered, and impermanent settlements. D) populated the greater part of the continent. E) relied on horses for transportation. Ans: C

20 20. The Iroquois Confederacy was able to menace its Native American and European neighbors because of A) its military alliance, sustained by political and organizational skills. B) the Iroquois warriors' skill with the Europeans' muskets. C) the scattered nature of the Iroquois settlements, which made it difficult for their enemies to defeat them. D) the alliance with the Aztecs and Incas. E) its use of new weapons. Ans: A

21 21. All of the following were original territories of North American Indian populations within the current borders of the United States except A) Mesoamerica. B) Northeast. C) Southeast. D) Great Plains. E) Great Basin. Ans: A

22 22. Men in the more settled agricultural groups in North America performed all of the following tasks except A) hunting. B) gathering fuel. C) tending crops. D) clearing fields for planting. E) fishing. Ans: C

23 23. The early voyages of the Scandinavian seafarers did not result in permanent settlement in North America because A) the Native Americans drove them out. B) the area in which they landed could not support a large population. C) no nation-state yearning to expand supported these ventures. D) British adventurers defeated the Scandinavians in 1066. E) the settlers died of disease. Ans: C

24 24. The Christian crusaders were indirectly responsible for the discovery of America because they
A) were victorious over the Muslims. B) brought back news of valuable Far Eastern spices, drugs, and silk. C) succeeded in establishing improved business relations between Muslims and Christians. D) returned with captured Muslim maps showing the North and South American continents. E) developed better navigational devices. Ans: B

25 25. Europeans wanted to discover a new, shorter route to eastern Asia in order to
A) break the hold that Muslim merchants had on trade with Asia. B) reduce the price of goods from Asia. C) gain more profits for themselves. D) reduce the time it took to transport goods. E) all of the above. Ans: E

26 26. Before the middle of the fifteenth century, sub-Saharan Africa had remained remote and mysterious to Europeans because A) there was little of value there for them. B) sea travel down the African coast had been virtually impossible. C) Islamic societies prevented Europe from making inroads there. D) they did not know that it existed. E) they feared the people who lived there. Ans: B

27 27. Which group was responsible for slave trading in Africa long before the Europeans had arrived
A) the Portuguese and Spanish. B) the English and Scandinavians. C) the Incas and Aztecs. D) the Arabs and Africans. E) the English and Americans. Ans: D

28 28. In the last half of the fifteenth century some forty thousand Africans were forced into slavery by Portugal and Spain to A) work on plantations in Africa. B) establish plantations in North America. C) establish plantations in South America. D) help pay for the gold they took. E) work on plantations on the Atlantic sugar islands. Ans: E

29 29. The origins of the modern plantation system can be found in the
A) American South. B) Arab slave trade. C) Portuguese slave trade. D) European feudal system. E) African slave system. Ans: C

30 30. Spain was united into a single nation-state when
A) it was invaded by Portugal in the late fifteenth century. B) Christopher Columbus returned with news of his discovery of the New World. C) Prince Henry the Navigator came to the throne. D) the African Moors were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula. E) Ferdinand and Isabella were overthrown. Ans: D

31 31. The stage was set for a cataclysmic shift in the course of history when
A) Europeans clamored for more and cheaper products from Asia. B) Africa was established as a source of slave labor. C) the Portuguese demonstrated the feasibility of long range ocean navigation. D) the Renaissance nurtured a spirit of optimism and adventure. E) all of the above. Ans: E

32 32. In an effort to reach the Indies, Spain looked westward because
A) Portugal controlled the African coast. B) the Pope granted Spain the right to sail this route. C) Muslims blocked the sea route. D) the Moors had convinced them to do so. E) all of the above. Ans: A

33 33. After his first voyage, Christopher Columbus believed that he had
A) discovered a New World. B) failed at what he had set out to do. C) sailed to the outskirts of the East Indies. D) sailed around the world. E) reached the shores of Japan. Ans: C

34 34. Columbus called the native people in the “New World” Indians because
A) that was what they called themselves. B) he believed that he had skirted the rim of the “Indies.” C) it was a form of the Spanish word for heathen. D) the Vikings had first called them by that name. E) all of the above. Ans: B

35 35. All of the following contributed to the emergence of a new interdependent global economic system except A) Europe providing the market and capital. B) Africa providing the labor. C) the belief of European explorers to create new cultures. D) New World providing its raw materials. E) the advancement and improvement of technology. Ans: C

36 36. Which of the following New World plants revolutionized the international economy?
A) maize B) potatoes C) beans D) tomatoes E) all of the above Ans: E

37 37. The introduction of American plants around the world resulted in
A) rapid population growth in Europe. B) many illnesses, caused by the new germs contained in these food-stuffs. C) an African population decline. D) very little change. E) an increase in obese people.

38 38. European contact with Native Americans led to
A) the Europeans' acceptance of the horse into their culture. B) the deaths of millions of Native Americans, who had little resistance to European diseases. C) the introduction into the New World of such plants as potatoes, tomatoes, and beans. D) an increase in the Native American population. E) the use of tobacco by Native Americans. Ans: B

39 39. Within a century after Columbus's landfall in the New World, the Native American population was reduced by nearly A) 50 percent. B) 20 percent. C) 70 percent. D) 90 percent. E) 40 percent. Ans: D

40 40. European explorers introduced ____________________ into the New World.
A) syphilis B) maize C) tobacco D) smallpox E) pumpkin Ans: D

41 41. The flood of precious metal from the New World to Europe resulted in
A) a price revolution that lowered consumer costs. B) the growth of capitalism. C) a reduced amount of trade with Asia. D) more money for France and Spain but less for Italy and Holland. E) little impact on the world economy. Ans: B

42 42. The institution of encomienda allowed the
A) native people to enslave members of other tribes. B) Europeans to marry Native Americans. C) European governments to give Indians to colonists if they promised to Christianize them. D) governments of Europe to abolish the practice of Indian slavery and to establish African slavery. E) Europeans to establish an economy based on capitalism. Ans: C

43 43. Men became conquistadores because they wanted to
A) gain God's favor by spreading Christianity. B) escape dubious pasts. C) seek adventure, as the heroes of classical antiquity had done. D) satisfy their desire for gold. E) all of the above. Ans: E

44 44. The Aztec chief Moctezuma allowed Cortés to enter the capital of Tenochtitlán because
A) Cortés's army was so powerful. B) Montezuma believed that Cortés was the god Quetzalcoatl. C) there was little in the city of interest to the Spanish. D) he was told to by the gods. E) all of the above. Ans: B

45 45. In which of the following is the explorer mismatched with the area he explored?
A) Coronado—New Mexico and Arizona B) Ponce de León—Mississippi River Valley C) Cortés—Mexico D) Pizarro—Peru E) Columbus—Caribbean islands Ans: B

46 46. Spain began to fortify and settle its North American border lands in order to
A) protect its Central and South American domains from encroachments by England and France. B) gain control of Canada. C) gain more slaves. D) find a passage to the Pacific Ocean. E) look for gold in Florida. Ans: A

47 47. As a result of Pope's Rebellion in 1680,
A) the Pueblo Indians destroyed every Catholic church in the province of New Mexico. B) the Pueblo Indians were destroyed. C) the Spanish destroyed Pueblo temples and erected Catholic churches on those sites. D) the Spanish missionaries suppressed native religions. E) the French gained control of Mexico. Ans: A

48 48. The treatment of the Native Americans by the Spanish conquistadores can be described as
A) at times brutal and exploitative. B) firm but fair. C) unmotivated by greed. D) scornful of intermarriage. E) leaving little of Spanish culture. Ans: A

49 49. The settlement founded in the early 1600s that was the most important for the future United States was A) Santa Fe. B) Quebec. C) Jamestown. D) Massachusetts Bay. E) Saint Augustine. Ans: C

50 50. The English treatment of the Irish, under the reign of Elizabeth I, can best be described as
A) firm but fair. B) better than their treatment of any English subjects. C) the prime example of salutary neglect. D) violent and unjust. E) supportive of their Catholic faith. Ans: D

51 51. Match each individual on the left with the correct
A. Francis Drake 1. “sea dog” who plundered the treasure ships of the Spanish Main B. Walter Raleigh 2. adventurer who tried but failed to establish a colony in Newfoundland C. Humphrey Gilbert 3. explorer whose voyage in 1498 estab-lished England’s territorial claims in the New World 4. courtier whose colony at Roanoke Is-land was mysteriously abandoned in the 1580s 5. colonizer who helped establish tobacco as a cash crop in Georgia A) A-2, B-1, C-3 B) A-1, B-4, C-2 C) A-3, B-2, C-1 D) A-4, B-3, C-2 E) A-5, B-4, C-1 Ans: B

52 52. Spain's dreams of empire began to fade with the
A) War of Spanish Succession. B) defeat of the Spanish Armada. C) loss of Brazil. D) Treaty of Tordesillas. E) conquest of Mexico by Portugal. Ans: B

53 53. The first successful English attempt at colonization in 1585 was in
A) Newfoundland. B) St. Augustine. C) Jamestown. D) Roanoke Island. E) Massachusetts Bay. Ans: D

54 54. England's defeat of the Spanish Armada
A) led to a Franco-Spanish alliance that prevented England from establishing its own American colonies. B) allowed England to take control of Spain's American colonies. C) demonstrated that Spanish Catholicism was inferior to English Protestantism. D) helped to ensure England's naval dominance in the North Atlantic. E) occurred despite weather conditions which favored Spain. Ans: D

55 55. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) Reformation, (B) founding of Jamestown colony, (C) Restoration, (D) defeat of the Spanish Armada, (E) colony of Georgia founded. A) A, B, C, D, E B) C, A, D, B, E C) D, A, B, C, E D) A, D, B, C, E E) E, D, A, C, B Ans: D

56 56. The spirit of the English on the eve of colonization included all of the following except
A) restlessness. B) limited patriotism. C) curiosity about the unknown. D) thirst for adventure. E) self-confidence. Ans: B

57 58. The financial means for England's first permanent colonization in America were provided by
A) a joint-stock company. B) a royal proprietor. C) Queen Elizabeth II. D) the law of primogeniture. E) an expanding wool trade. Ans: A

58 57. On the eve of its colonizing adventure, England possessed
A) a unified national state. B) a measure of religious unity. C) a sense of nationalism. D) a popular monarch. E) all of the above. Ans: E

59 59. All of the following provided motives for English colonization except
A) unemployment. B) thirst for adventure. C) desire for markets. D) desire for religious freedom. E) need for a place to exploit slave labor. Ans: E

60 60. The guarantee that English settlers in the New World would retain the “rights of Englishmen” proved to be A) an empty promise. B) unpopular among the settlers. C) the cause of revolutions in Spain and France. D) the foundation for American liberties. E) a catalyst for French colonization of North America. Ans: D

61 61. The early years at Jamestown were mainly characterized by
A) starvation, disease, and frequent Indian raids. B) economic prosperity. C) constant fear of Spanish invasion. D) major technological advancement. E) peace with the Native Americans. Ans: A

62 62. Despite an abundance of fish and game, early Jamestown settlers continued to starve because
A) they had neither weapons nor fishing gear. B) their fear of Indians prevented them from venturing too far from the town. C) they were unaccustomed to fend for themselves and wasted time looking for gold. D) they lacked leaders to organize efficient hunting and fishing parties. E) there were not enough gentlemen to organize the work force. Ans: C

63 63. Captain John Smith's role at Jamestown can best be described as
A) very limited. B) saving the colony from collapse. C) persuading the colonists to continue their hunt for gold. D) worsening the colonists' relationship with the Indians. E) reducing the terrible death toll. Ans: B

64 64. Chief Powhatan had Captain John Smith kidnapped in order to
A) impress Smith with his power and show the Indian's desire for peace. B) demonstrate the Indians' desire for war. C) punish Smith for refusing to marry Pocahontas. D) hold him for a large ransom to be paid by King James. E) all of the above. Ans: A

65 65. When Lord De La Warr took control of Jamestown in 1610, he
A) halted the rapid population decline. B) re-established better relations with the Indians. C) brought many Irish immigrants with him. D) died within a few months of his arrival. E) imposed a harsh military regime on the colony. Ans: E

66 66. The result of the Second Anglo-Powhatan War in 1644 can best be described as
A) halting white settlement on the frontier. B) returning the Chesapeake Indians to their ancestral lands. C) making peaceful coexistence possible between the European and native peoples. D) ending any chance of assimilating the native peoples into Virginia society. E) bringing together areas of white and Indian settlement. Ans: D

67 67. The native peoples of Virginia (Powhatans) succumbed to the Europeans because they
A) died in large numbers from European diseases. B) lacked the unity necessary to resist the well-organized whites. C) could be disposed of by Europeans with no harm to the colonial economy. D) were not a reliable labor source. E) all of the above. Ans: E

68 68. The introduction of horses brought about significant change in the lives of the Lakotas, from this they A) were forced to move to the west. B) became sedentary forest dwellers. C) died out. D) lost their oral traditions. E) became nomadic hunters. Ans: E

69 70. The Indians that had the greatest opportunity to adapt to the European incursion were
A) those living on the Atlantic seaboard. B) those in Florida. C) inland tribes such as the Algonquians. D) those in Latin America. E) the Pueblos. Ans: C

70 69. The biggest disrupter of Native American life was
A) horses. B) loss of culture. C) disease. D) fire arms. E) the formation of new tribes. Ans: C

71 71. After the purchases of slaves in 1619 by Jamestown settlers, additional purchases of Africans were few because A) they were poor workers. B) many colonists were morally opposed to slavery. C) their labor was not needed. D) indentured servants refused to work with them. E) they were too costly. Ans: E

72 72. The cultivation of tobacco in Jamestown resulted in all of the following except
A) the destruction of the soil. B) a great demand for controlled labor. C) soaring prosperity in the colony. D) diversification of the colony's economy. E) the broad-acred plantation system. Ans: D

73 73. The summoning of Virginia's House of Burgesses marked an important precedent because it
A) failed. B) was abolished by King James I. C) was the first of many miniature parliaments to convene in America. D) forced King James I to revoke the colony's royal charter and grant it self-government. E) allowed the seating of nonvoting Native Americans. Ans: C

74 74. A major reason for the founding of the Maryland colony in 1634 was to
A) establish a defensive buffer against Spanish colonies in the South. B) create a refuge for the Catholics. C) help the Protestants, by giving them a safe haven. D) allow Lord Baltimore to keep all the land for himself. E) repudiate the feudal way of life. Ans: B

75 75. At the outset, Lord Baltimore allowed some religious toleration in the Maryland colony because he A) hoped to secure freedom of worship for his fellow Catholics. B) was a committed atheist. C) wanted the colony's Jews to be able to practice their faith. D) hoped to maintain a Catholic majority. E) was asked to do so by the king. Ans: A

76 76. In 1649 Maryland's Act of Toleration
A) was issued by Lord Baltimore. B) abolished the death penalty. C) gave freedom only to Catholics. D) protected Jews and atheists. E) guaranteed toleration to all Christians. Ans: E

77 77. Tobacco was considered a poor man's crop because
A) it could be produced easily and quickly. B) it was smoked by the lower class. C) the poor were used to plant and harvest it. D) it could be purchased at a low price. E) it required complicated processing. Ans: A

78 78. Sugar was called a rich man's crop for all of the following reasons except that it
A) had to be planted extensively. B) required the clearing of much land. C) could be purchased only by the wealthy. D) required an elaborate refining process. E) was a capital-intense business. Ans: C

79 79. Under the Barbados slave code of 1661, slaves were
A) guaranteed the right to marry. B) denied the most fundamental rights. C) protected from the most vicious punishments. D) given the opportunity to purchase their freedom. E) assigned specific monetary value. Ans: B

80 80. The statutes governing slavery in the North American colonies originated in
A) England. B) Virginia. C) Brazil. D) Barbados. E) Spain. Ans: D

81 81. One of the earliest and most important exports from the Carolinas was
A) tobacco. B) naval stores. C) fish. D) Indian slaves. E) corn. Ans: D

82 82. The colony of South Carolina prospered
A) by developing close economic ties with the British West Indies. B) only after Georgia was established. C) as a result of the importation of Indian slaves. D) because of its thriving shipbuilding industry. E) under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell. Ans: A

83 83. Two major exports of the Carolinas were
A) rice and Indian slaves. B) sugar and corn. C) tobacco and furs. D) black slaves and cotton. E) sugar and cotton.

84 84. Some Africans became especially valuable as slaves in the Carolinas because they
A) had experience working in dry, desert like areas. B) were experienced in rice cultivation. C) were knowledgeable regarding cotton production. D) exhibited skill as soldiers. E) were skilled fishermen. Ans: B

85 85. The busiest seaport in the southern colonies was
A) St. Augustine. B) Jamestown. C) Savannah. D) Baltimore. E) Charleston. Ans: E

86 86. North Carolina and Rhode Island were similar in that they
A) were very aristocratic. B) exercised no independent prerogative. C) depended on trade with Spain. D) were the two most democratic colonies. E) were founded by Roger Williams. Ans: D

87 87. The inhabitants of North Carolina were regarded by their neighbors as
A) hostile and violent. B) too submissive to authority. C) outcasts and irreligious. D) far too friendly with Spain. E) too Catholic. Ans: C

88 88. The attitude of Carolinians toward Indians can best be described as
A) friendly. B) neutral. C) hostile. D) promoting interracial marriage. E) none of the above. Ans: C

89 89. The colony of Georgia was founded
A) by a joint-stock company. B) as a defensive buffer for the valuable Carolinas. C) by eight proprietors chosen by Charles II. D) in the seventeenth century. E) by King George. Ans: B

90 90. Georgia's founders were determined to
A) conquer Florida and add it to Britain's empire. B) create a haven for people imprisoned for debt. C) keep Georgia for Catholics. D) restrict the colony to British citizens. E) establish slavery. Ans: B

91 91. All of the following European imports threatened the Iroquois' existence except
A) religion. B) whiskey. C) diseases. D) muskets. E) all threatened their existence. Ans: A

92 92. The purpose of the periodic “mourning wars” was
A) to avenge the deaths of Huron warriors. B) to stop the spread of European settlements. C) the result of diplomatic failures among the Indians. D) to break up the Iroquois Confederacy. E) the large-scale adoption of captives and refugees. Ans: E

93 93. The Iroquois leader who helped his nation revive its old customs was
A) Powhatan. B) Handsome Lake. C) Pocahontas. D) De La Warr. E) Pontiac. Ans: B

94 94. Georgia grew very slowly for all of the following reasons except
A) its unhealthy climate. B) early restrictions on black slavery. C) Spanish attacks. D) John Oglethorpe's leadership. E) lack of a plantation economy. Ans: D

95 95. Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia were similar in that they were all
A) economically dependent on the export of a staple crop. B) proprietary colonies. C) founded after the restoration of Charles II to the throne. D) founded as refuges for persecuted religious sects in England. E) able to live in peace with the Native Americans. Ans: A

96 96. By 1750, all the southern plantation colonies
A) based their economies on the production of staple crops for export. B) practiced slavery. C) provided tax support for the Church of England. D) had few large cities. E) all of the above. Ans: E

97 97. Arrange the following events in chronological order: the founding of (A) Georgia, (B) the Carolinas, (C) Virginia, (D) Maryland. A) A, C, B, D B) B, D, C, A C) C, D, B, A D) D, C, B, A E) C, B, A, D Ans: C

98 98. Colonists in both the North and the South established differences in all of the following areas except A) patterns of settlement. B) economies. C) political systems. D) values. E) allegiance to England. Ans: E

99 99. Match each item on the left with the correct definition:
A. predestination 1. belief that from the moment of creation some souls were “saved” and others “damned” B. conversion 2. belief that faith, good works, and repentance could earn salvation C. antinomianism 3. the sign of receipt of God's free gift of saving grace 4. belief that those whom God had marked for salvation need not obey secular laws A) A-1, B-3, C-2 B) A-3, B-2, C-1 C) A-1, B-3, C-4 D) A-4, B-l, C-3 E) A-2, B-4, C-3 Ans: C

100 100. In Calvinist thought the “conversion” was
A) something experienced as a group. B) earned by a person's good works. C) a Catholic heresy. D) an event that freed a person from having to live a holy life. E) an intense, personal experience when God revealed an individual's heavenly destiny. Ans: E

101 103. King James I opposed the Separatists who wanted to break away entirely from the Church of England because he A) realized that if his subjects could defy him as their spiritual leader, they could defy him as their political leader. B) strongly believed in the concept of “visible saints.” C) never understood the political implications of their actions. D) believed that they were turning their backs on the true Calvinist faith. E) was a strong Catholic. Ans: A

102 102. Henry VIII aided the entrance of Protestant beliefs into England when he
A) allowed Martin Luther to journey to England. B) broke England's ties with the Catholic church. C) removed himself as the head of the Church of England. D) ordered John Calvin to go to Switzerland. E) supported the Puritans. Ans: B

103 101. In Puritan doctrine, the “elect” were also referred to as
A) Separatists. B) “patroons.” C) “visible saints.” D) Pilgrims. E) Anglicans. Ans: C

104 104. The Separatists migrated from Holland to the New World in order to
A) avoid the coming war with France. B) gain wealth through all the economic incentives the New World offered. C) establish a new nation. D) avoid the Dutchification of their children. E) escape the jurisdiction of the Virginia Company. Ans: D

105 105. Match each colony on the left with its associated item.
A. Plymouth 1. General Court B. Connecticut 2. Mayflower Compact C. Massachusetts Bay 3. Fundamental Orders 4. patroonships A) A-3, B-2, C-4 B) A-2, B-3, C-1 C) A-4, B-1, C-2 D) A-1, B-4, C-3 E) A-3, B-2, C-1 Ans: B

106 106. The Mayflower Compact can be best described as
A) an agreement to follow the dictates of Parliament. B) a document which allowed women limited participation in government. C) a constitution which established a working government. D) a complex agreement to form an oligarchy. E) a promising step toward genuine self-government. Ans: E

107 107. The leader that helped the Pilgrims survive was
A) John Smith. B) John Winthrop. C) Roger Williams. D) William Laud. E) William Bradford. Ans: E

108 108. The historical significance of the Pilgrims of Plymouth Bay lies in their
A) numerical size. B) economic power. C) moral and spiritual qualities. D) unique charter, which permitted self-government. E) unwillingness to merge with the Puritans in Massachusetts Bay. Ans: C

109 109. Unlike Separatists, the Puritans
A) advocated strict separation of church and state. B) practiced passive resistance to oppression. C) remained members of the Church of England. D) were Calvinists. E) rejected belief in witchcraft. Ans: C

110 110. Initially, the Massachusetts Bay Colony enjoyed all of the following advantages except that of
A) being a well-equipped expedition. B) starting off on a larger scale than any other English colony. C) receiving many fairly prosperous and educated immigrants. D) receiving a majority of the Puritans coming to the New World. E) a shared purpose among the first settlers. Ans: D

111 111. Puritan doctrine included acceptance of
A) antinomianism. B) the Pope's supremacy. C) the idea of a covenant with God. D) the doctrine of good works. E) the King as the final religious authority. Ans: C

112 112. With the franchise in Massachusetts extended to all adult males who belonged to Puritan congregations, the proportion of qualified voters (approximately 2/5) in this colony as compared to England was A) larger. B) somewhat smaller. C) about the same. D) not known. E) a great deal smaller. Ans: A

113 113. In the Massachusetts “Bible Commonwealth,” clergyman
A) could be elected to political office. B) could not be fired by their congregations. C) were not allowed to marry. D) were barred from holding formal political office. E) could not have children. Ans: D

114 114. Puritan religious beliefs allowed all of the following except
A) drinking alcohol. B) eating plentifully. C) challenging religious authority. D) making love discreetly. E) singing songs. Ans: C

115 115. Among the Puritans, it was understood that
A) they would establish democratic government in America. B) clergymen would hold the most powerful political office. C) the purpose of government was to enforce God's laws. D) all adult white male landowners could vote for political leaders. E) women could become religious leaders. Ans: C

116 116. People who flouted the authority of the Puritan clergy in Massachusetts Bay were subject to which of the following punishments? A) fines B) floggings C) banishment D) death E) all of the above. Ans: E

117 117. According to Anne Hutchinson, a dissenter in Massachusetts Bay,
A) predestination was not a valid idea. B) the truly saved need not bother to obey the laws of God or man. C) antinomianism was heresy. D) direct revelation from God was impossible. E) a person needs only to obey the law of God. Ans: B

118 118. As the founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams
A) established religious freedom for all but Jews and Catholics. B) supported some types of special privileges. C) established complete religious freedom for all. D) demanded attendance at worship. E) became a very wealthy man. Ans: C

119 119. Roger Williams' beliefs included all of the following except
A) breaking away from the Church of England. B) demanding oaths regarding religious beliefs. C) condemning the taking of Indian land without fair compensation. D) denying the authority of the civil government to regulate religious matters. E) challenging the legality of Massachusetts Bay's charter. Ans: B

120 120. As a colony, Rhode Island became known for
A) its poor treatment of Indians. B) unified religious beliefs. C) support of special privilege. D) never having secured a charter from Parliament. E) individualist and independent attitudes. Ans: E

121 121. Settlers of the Connecticut River colony developed a document known as the Fundamental Orders, which A) marked the beginning of the colony of Connecticut. B) established a regime democratically controlled by “substantial” citizens. C) set up a military alliance in New England. D) pleased King Charles I. E) supported a government controlled by all people. Ans: B

122 122. The city of New Haven was settled by
A) supporters of Charles II. B) refugees from Rhode Island. C) supporters of religious freedom. D) Germans. E) Puritans. Ans: E

123 123. Unlike other English voyagers to the New World, the Puritans
A) transplanted entire communities. B) lost most of their Old World habits. C) immigrated as individuals rather than in groups. D) came only for religious reasons. E) renounced their membership in the Church of England. Ans: A

124 124. After the Pequot War, Puritan efforts to convert Indians to Christianity can best be described as A) vigorous but unsuccessful. B) more zealous than those made by Catholics, but still unsuccessful. C) filling “praying towns” with hundreds of Indians. D) feeble, not equaling that of the Spanish or the French. E) very successful. Ans: D

125 125. The New England Indians' only hope for resisting English encroachment lay in
A) acquiring English muskets. B) enlisting the aid of the French. C) intertribal unity against the English. D) building fortifications. E) allying themselves with the Dutch. Ans: C

126 126. King Philip's War resulted in
A) the lasting defeat of New England's Indians. B) France's moving into Canada. C) the formation of a powerful alliance among the Indians to resist the English. D) the last victory for the Indians. E) none of the above. Ans: A

127 127. During the early years of colonization in the New World, England
A) closely controlled its colonies. B) maintained an excellent relationship with the Indians. C) paid little attention to its colonies. D) made sure all the colonies had royal charters. E) began the importation of African slaves in large numbers. Ans: C

128 128. The New England Confederation
A) included all the New England colonies. B) was designed to bolster colonial defense. C) led the American colonies to seek independence from England. D) was created by the English government to streamline its administration of the colonies. E) was an economic and trade alliance. Ans: B

129 129. The Dominion of New England
A) included all the New England colonies. B) was created by the English government to streamline the administration of its colonies. C) was designed to bolster colonial defense. D) eventually included New York and east and west New Jersey. E) all of the above. Ans: E

130 130. As the head of Dominion of New England, Sir Edmund Andros was all of the following except
A) an able military man. B) conscientious. C) a Puritan. D) tactless. E) a leader who restricted the press. Ans: C

131 131. As a result of England's Glorious Revolution,
A) the Dominion of the New World collapsed. B) Sir Edmund Andros gained control over Massachusetts. C) Massachusetts regained its original charter. D) opposition to English rule in the colonies subsided. E) James II regained his legitimate right to the crown. Ans: A

132 132. As a result of Sir Edmund Andros's rule,
A) the power of town meetings was curbed. B) officials tried to enforce the Navigation Laws. C) taxes were levied without the consent of elected representatives. D) smuggling was suppressed. E) all of the above. Ans: E

133 133. New York was A) the best advertised of all the colonies. B) designed as a Quaker refuge. C) originally founded by the Dutch. D) a major contributor to political democracy and religious tolerance in the English colonies. E) the last of the middle colonies to be established. Ans: C

134 134. The Dutch colony of New Netherland (later New York)
A) allowed only Dutch immigrants to settle there. B) was established for its quick profit of fur trading. C) tolerated Quakers from nearby Pennsylvania. D) supported free speech and other democratic practices. E) all of the above. Ans: B

135 135. New York and Pennsylvania were similar in that they both
A) were established by joint-stock companies. B) experienced slow population growth. C) had ethnically mixed populations. D) were founded as religious refuges. E) had poor soil. Ans: C

136 136. New England Confederation regarded Dutch New Netherland as
A) a welcome friend. B) an enemy to be wiped out. C) an easy target for Indian raids. D) the next victim of New Sweden. E) a trading partner. Ans: B

137 137. When the English gained control over New Netherland,
A) the autocratic spirit survived. B) democracy replaced the old autocratic system. C) the colony grew quickly. D) new leaders distributed land grants in a more democratic fashion. E) they did so with great bloodshed. Ans: A

138 138. One of the traits that made Quakers unpopular in England was
A) their refusal to do military service. B) the high pay given their clergy. C) their support of slavery. D) their violent treatment of their enemies. E) their refusal to hold public office. Ans: A

139 139. The physical growth of English New York was slowed because
A) of the Indian threat. B) of an unhealthy climate. C) the Dutch engaged in guerrilla warfare. D) of the monopolistic land policies of the aristocrats. E) of the French threat. Ans: D

140 140. Cultural contributions the Dutch made to America include all of the following except
A) Easter eggs. B) Santa Claus. C) sauerkraut. D) skating. E) soccer. Ans: E

141 141. Pennsylvania was A) the best advertised. B) the most lied about. C) the slowest to attract settlers. D) the only one with royal colony status. E) all of the above. Ans: A

142 142. Indian policy in early Pennsylvania can be best described as
A) extremely harsh. B) bad at first but improving later. C) influenced mainly by the state supported church. D) benevolent. E) none of the above. Ans: D

143 143. Economically, the colony of Pennsylvania
A) got off to a very slow start. B) never prospered. C) received much help from New York. D) became profitable very quickly. E) had extensive plantations. Ans: D

144 144. All the middle colonies were
A) founded by proprietors. B) established by joint-stock companies. C) notable for their fertile soil. D) intended as religious havens. E) dependent on slave labor. Ans: C

145 145. The middle colonies were notable for their
A) lack of good river transportation. B) unusual degree of democratic control. C) lack of industry. D) status as the least “American” of the colonies. E) established churches. Ans: B

146 146. Recently, historians have increasingly viewed the colonial period as
A) one in which the Puritans had been overlooked. B) one of contact and adaptation between native populations. C) one in which the settlement of the Caribbean has been stressed too much. D) one in which economic ambition was the main reason all colonists came. E) all of the above. Ans: B

147 147. The section of the American colonies where there was the greatest internal conflict was
A) New England. B) the Deep South. C) the western frontier. D) the middle colonies. E) the southwest. Ans: D

148 148. The picture of colonial America that is emerging from new scholarship is a society formed by
A) encounters with native people. B) European heritage. C) many intertwining roots. D) American heritage. E) all of the above. Ans: E

149 149. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) restoration of Charles II to the English throne, (B) English Civil War, (C) Glorious Revolution, (D) Protestant Reformation. A) D, B, A, C B) C, A, B, D C) D, C, B, A D) B, C, A, D E) A, B, C, D Ans: A

150 150. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) great Puritan migration, (B) founding of Plymouth Colony, (C) Protestant Reformation, (D) founding of Rhode Island. A) A, B, D, C B) C, B, A, D C) C, A, B, D D) B, D, A, C E) D, A, C, B Ans: B

151 151. Arrange the following in chronological order: the founding of (A) New York, (B) Massachusetts Bay, (C) Pennsylvania, (D) Plymouth. A) C, B, A, D B) B, D, C, A C) A, C, D, B D) D, B, A, C E) A, C, B, D Ans: D

152 152. As the seventeenth century wore on, regional differences continued to crystalize, most notably
A) the use of indentured servants. B) loyalty to England. C) the continuing rigidity of Puritanism. D) the breaking of the Atlanta economy. E) the importance of slave labor in the south. Ans: E

153 153. The population of the Chesapeake colonies throughout the first half of the seventeenth century was notable for its A) fast growth rate. B) scarcity of women. C) low death rate. D) stable family life. E) large percentage of middle aged men. Ans: B

154 154. In the seventeenth century, due to a high death rate families were both few and fragile in
A) New England. B) the Chesapeake colonies. C) the middle colonies. D) Georgia. E) Florida Ans: B

155 155. During the seventeenth century, indentured servitude solved the labor problem in many English colonies for all of the following reasons except that A) the Indian population proved to be an unreliable work force because they died in such large numbers. B) African slaves cost too much money. C) in some areas families formed too slowly. D) Spain had stopped sending slaves to its New World colonies. E) families procreated too slowly. Ans: D

156 156. The “headright” system, which made some people very wealthy, consisted of
A) using Indians as forced labor. B) giving land to indentured servants to get them to come to the New World. C) giving the right to acquire fifty acres of land to the person paying the passage of a laborer to America. D) discouraging the importation of indentured servants to America. E) giving a father's wealth to the oldest son. Ans: C

157 157. By 1700, the most populous colony in English America was
A) Massachusetts. B) Virginia. C) New York. D) Pennsylvania. E) Maryland. Ans: B

158 158. Seventeenth-century colonial tobacco growers usually responded to depressed prices for their crop by A) selling slaves to reduce productive labor. B) selling land to reduce their volume of production. C) growing more tobacco to increase their volume of production. D) planting corn and wheat instead of tobacco. E) releasing unneeded indentured servants early. Ans: C

159 160. For their labor in the colonies indentured servants received all of the following except
A) passage to America. B) a suit of clothes. C) a few barrels of corn. D) a headright. E) at times a small parcel of land. Ans: D

160 159. __________ reaped the greatest benefit from the land policies of the “headright” system.
A) Indentured servants B) African slaves C) Merchant planters D) New England colonists E) Slave owners Ans: C

161 161. English yeomen who agreed to exchange their labor temporarily in return for payment of their passage to an American colony were called A) headrights. B) burgesses. C) indentured servants. D) slaves. E) birds of passage. Ans: C

162 162. Throughout the greater part of the seventeenth century, the Chesapeake colonies acquired most of the labor they needed from A) African slaves. B) white servants. C) captured Indians. D) West Indian natives. E) prisoners of war. Ans: B

163 163. Most immigrants to the Chesapeake colonies in the seventeenth century came as
A) indentured servants. B) slaves from Africa. C) yeomen farmers. D) urban artisans. E) refugees from civil war in Europe. Ans: A

164 164. Over the course of the seventeenth century, most indentured servants
A) became landowners. B) devolved into slavery. C) managed to escape the terms of their contracts. D) faced increasingly harsh circumstances. E) saw their wages increase. Ans: D

165 165. By the end of the seventeenth century, indentured servants who gained their freedom
A) often gained great wealth as more land opened for settlement. B) rarely returned to work for their masters. C) almost always found high-paying jobs in the cities. D) had little choice but to hire themselves out for low wages to their former masters. E) often returned to England penniless and broke. Ans: D

166 166. Bacon's Rebellion was supported mainly by
A) young men frustrated by their inability to acquire land. B) the planter class of Virginia. C) those protesting the increased importation of African slaves. D) people from Jamestown only. E) the local Indians. Ans: A

167 167. The immediate reason for Bacon's Rebellion was
A) Indian attacks on frontier settlements. B) the wealthy planter class losing control of the colony. C) a shortage of indentured servants. D) to halt the importation of African slaves. E) all of the above. Ans: A

168 168. As a result of Bacon's Rebellion,
A) African slavery was reduced. B) planters began to look for less troublesome laborers. C) Governor Berkeley was dismissed from office. D) Nathaniel Bacon was named to head the Virginia militia. E) better relations developed with local Indians. Ans: B

169 169. The majority of African slaves coming to the New World
A) went to English North America. B) were delivered to South America and the West Indies. C) came to New England. D) were brought by the Dutch. E) died before reaching their destination. Ans: B

170 170. After 1680, reliance on slave labor in colonial America rapidly increased because
A) higher wages in England reduced the number of emigrating servants. B) planters feared the growing number of landless freemen in the colonies. C) the British Royal African company lost its monopoly on the slave trade in colonial America. D) Americans rushed to cash in on slave trade. E) all of the above. Ans: E

171 171. Many of the slaves who reached North America
A) came from eastern Africa. B) were originally captured by African coastal tribes. C) were captured in southern Africa. D) eventually gained their freedom. E) settled in the middle colonies. Ans: B

172 172. For those Africans who were sold into slavery, the “middle passage” can be best described as
A) the trip from the interior of Africa to the coast. B) the easiest part of their journey to America. C) the journey from American parts to their new homes. D) the gruesome ocean voyage to America. E) none of the above. Ans: D

173 173. The physical and social conditions of slavery were harshest in
A) Maryland. B) Virginia. C) South Carolina. D) Massachusetts. E) Pennsylvania. Ans: C

174 174. African American contributions to American culture include all of the following except
A) jazz music. B) the banjo. C) the guitar. D) a variety of words. E) bongo drums. Ans: C

175 175. While slavery might have begun in America for economic reasons,
A) it soon became clear by 1700 that profits were down. B) race was rarely an issue in relations between blacks and whites. C) racial discrimination also powerfully molded the American slave system. D) profit soon played a very small role. E) Europe profited most from the institution. Ans: C

176 176. The slave society that developed in North America was one of the few slave societies in history to A) produce a new culture based entirely on African heritage. B) rebel against its masters. C) reduce their numbers by suicide. D) develop its own techniques of growing corn and wheat. E) perpetuate itself by its own natural reproduction. Ans: E

177 177. The slave culture that developed in America
A) was derived exclusively from African roots. B) rejected Christianity. C) was Muslim in its religious teachings. D) contained many Western elements that remained thoroughly European. E) was a uniquely New World creation. Ans: E

178 178. Slave Christianity emphasized all of the following in their faith except
A) Jesus was the Messiah who would deliver them from bondage. B) the concepts of humility and obedience. C) heaven was a place where they would be reunited with their ancestors. D) God's freeing the Hebrews from slavery. E) using religious songs as encoded messages about escape. Ans: B

179 179. Compared with indentured servants, African American slaves were
A) less reliable workers. B) more likely to rebel. C) cheaper to buy and own. D) a more manageable labor force. E) less expensive to buy but more expensive to keep. Ans: D

180 180. As slavery spread in the South,
A) social differences within society narrowed. B) the great plantation owners worked less. C) gaps in the social structure widened. D) planters tried to imitate the ways of English country gentlemen. E) it also increased dramatically in New England. Ans: C

181 181. Most of the inhabitants of the colonial American South were
A) large merchant planters. B) landowning small farmers. C) landless farm laborers. D) black slaves. E) native Americans. Ans: B

182 182. Urban development in the colonial South
A) rivaled that of New England. B) kept pace with the growth of large plantations. C) led to the construction of an excellent highway system. D) was slow to emerge. E) occurred without the development of a professional class. Ans: D

183 183. It was typical of colonial New England adults to
A) marry early and have several children. B) be unable to read and write. C) arrive in New England unmarried. D) die before becoming grandparents. E) live solitary lives. Ans: A

184 184. The New England family can best be described as
A) relatively small in size due to the frequency of deaths from childbirth. B) a very stable institution. C) a limiting factor in the growth of the region's population. D) not very close-knit. E) similar to the family in the Chesapeake colonies. Ans: B

185 185. The special characteristics of New England's population led to the observation that these colonists “invented” A) premarital sex. B) grandparents. C) family life. D) religious piety. E) women's rights. Ans: B

186 186. Southern colonies generally allowed married women to retain separate title to their property because A) of religious beliefs. B) of English tradition. C) southern men frequently died young. D) southern families were stable. E) of a smaller number of men than women. Ans: C

187 187. Puritans refused to recognize a woman's separate property rights because
A) of the short life span of New England women. B) they worried that such rights would undercut the unity of married persons. C) New England families were so rare. D) there was so little land available. E) of all of the above. Ans: B

188 188. In seventeenth century colonial America all of the following are true regarding women except
A) women had no rights as individuals. B) women could not vote. C) women were regarded as morally weaker than men. D) a husband's power over his wife was not absolute. E) abusive husbands were punished. Ans: A

189 189. The expansion of New England society
A) proceeded in an orderly fashion. B) was a rather haphazard process. C) was undertaken by lone-wolf farmers on their own initiative. D) took place without the approval of the colonial legislature. E) led to little concern about the community as a whole. Ans: A

190 190. When new towns were established in New England, all of the following were true except
A) a land grant was given by the legislature. B) a meeting house was built. C) a village green was laid out. D) schools were required in towns of more than fifty families. E) families did not automatically receive land. Ans: E

191 191. The Puritan system of congregational church government logically led to
A) an authoritarian political government. B) the early establishment of religious toleration. C) democracy in political government. D) the end of town meetings. E) none of the above. Ans: C

192 192. Thomas Jefferson once observed that “the best school of political liberty the world ever saw” was the A) College of William and Mary. B) Virginia House of Burgesses. C) New England town meeting. D) Chesapeake plantation system. E) the English parliament. Ans: C

193 193. All of the following were consequences of the Half-Way Covenant except
A) it weakened the distinction between the “elect” and others. B) it maintained the original agreement of the covenant. C) it conferred partial membership rights in the once-exclusive congregations. D) it increased the numbers of church membership. E) women became the majority in the Puritan congregations. Ans: B

194 194. The Half-Way Covenant A) allowed full communion for all nonconverted members. B) strengthened the distinction between the “elect” and all others. C) brought an end to the Jeremiads of Puritan ministers. D) resulted in a decrease in church members. E) admitted to baptism but not full membership the unconverted children of existing members. Ans: E

195 195. The Salem witchcraft trials were
A) a result of Roger Williams's activities. B) the result of unsettled social and religious conditions in rapidly evolving Massachusetts. C) caused by ergot in the Puritans' bread. D) unique to the English colonies. E) accusations made by the daughters of business owners. Ans: B

196 196. During the Salem witchcraft trials, most of those accused as witches were
A) property-owning women. B) from the ranks of poor families. C) primarily un-Christian. D) women in their late teen years. E) from subsistence farming families. Ans: A

197 197. The Salem “witch hunt” in 1692
A) was the largest “witch hunt” in recorded history. B) was the first in the English American colonies. C) was opposed by the more responsible members of the clergy. D) was ultimately of little consequence for those who were accused of witchcraft. E) did not see anyone put to death. Ans: C

198 198. As a result of poor soil, all of the following conditions prevailed in New England except that
A) reliance on a single, staple crop became a necessity. B) the area was less ethnically mixed than its southern neighbors. C) frugality became essential to economic survival. D) hard work was required to make a living. E) diversification in agriculture and industry were encouraged. Ans: A

199 199. The New England economy depended heavily on
A) slave labor. B) the production of many staple crops. C) fishing, shipbuilding, and commerce. D) tobacco. E) all of the above. Ans: C

200 200. In contrast to the Chesapeake colonies, those in New England
A) had a more diversified economy. B) expanded westward in a less orderly fashion. C) had a more ethnically mixed population. D) were more oriented toward the individual than toward community interests. E) followed the land use pattern established by the local Indians. Ans: A

201 201. The English justified taking land from the native inhabitants on the grounds that the Indians
A) were not Christians. B) wasted the earth. C) burned woodlands. D) refused to sell it. E) all of the above. Ans: B

202 202. The combination of Calvinism, soil, and climate in New England resulted in the people there possessing which of the following qualities: A) energy. B) stubbornness. C) self-reliance. D) resourcefulness. E) all of the above. Ans: E

203 203. The impact of New England on the rest of the nation can best be described as
A) greatly exaggerated. B) generally negative. C) confined primarily to New England. D) extremely important. E) moderately important. Ans: D

204 204. Compared with most seventeenth-century Europeans, Americans lived in
A) relative poverty. B) larger cities. C) affluent abundance. D) a more rigid class system. E) more primitive circumstances. Ans: C

205 205. The late-seventeenth-century rebellion in New York was headed by ____________________, whereas that in Maryland was led by __________. A) Nathaniel Bacon, Catholics B) William Berkeley, slaves C) Puritans, Indians D) Jacob Leisler, Protestants E) the Dutch, Catholics Ans: D

206 206. All of the following are reasons the thirteen Atlantic seaboard colonies sought independence except A) distinctive social structures. B) distinctive economic structures. C) distinctive political structures. D) distinctive ethnic or racial structures. E) the appearance of a recognizably American way of life. Ans: D

207 207. One feature common to all of the eventually rebellious colonies was their
A) relatively equal wealth. B) economic organization. C) similar social structures. D) rapidly growing populations. E) support of religious freedom. Ans: D

208 208. As a result of the rapid population growth in colonial America during the eighteenth century,
A) a momentous shift occurred in the balance of power between the colonies and the mother country. B) the British government was pleased that more workers would be available to fill an increasing need for laborers in Britain. C) the need for slave labor declined. D) the colonists became more dependent on Britain for the goods that they needed to survive. E) the British government granted greater autonomy to colonial governments. Ans: A

209 209. The population growth of the American colonies by 1775 is attributed mostly to
A) white immigration from Europe. B) the natural fertility of Native Americans. C) the importation of slaves from Africa. D) the influx of immigrants from Latin America. E) the natural fertility of all Americans. Ans: E

210 210. The average age of the American colonists in 1775 was
B) 27. C) 25. D) 20. E) 16. Ans: E

211 211. By 1775, which of the following communities could not be considered a city in colonial America?
A) New York B) Charlestown C) Philadelphia D) Boston E) Baltimore Ans: E

212 212. By the end of the 1700's, what was the percentage of people living in rural areas of colonial America? A) 25% B) 40% C) 60% D) 75% E) 90% Ans: E

213 213. With regard to governmental authority, the Scots-Irish colonists
A) showed remarkable willingness to follow authority. B) supported only Britain. C) cherished no love for the British or any other government. D) stated a preference for Catholic authority. E) established good relations with local Indians. Ans: C

214 214. By 1775, the ___ were the largest non-English ethnic group in colonial America.
A) Africans B) Germans C) West Indians D) Scots-Irish E) Irish Ans: A

215 215. The population of the thirteen American colonies was
A) about evenly divided among Anglo-Saxons, French, Scots-Irish, and Germans. B) perhaps the most diverse in the world, although it remained predominantly Anglo-Saxon. C) was overwhelmingly African. D) the less diverse in the world. E) none of the above. Ans: B

216 216. The most ethnically diverse region of colonial America was ________________________, whereas ____________ was the least ethnically diverse. A) New England, the South B) the middle colonies, the South C) the South, New England D) the middle colonies, New England E) the frontier regions, New England Ans: D

217 217. In contrast to the seventeenth century, by 1775 colonial Americans
A) had become more stratified into social classes and had less social mobility. B) had all but eliminated poverty. C) found that it was easier for ordinary people to acquire land. D) had nearly lost their fear of slave rebellion. E) had few people who owned small farms. Ans: A

218 218. By the mid-1700s, the number of poor people in the American colonies
A) became greater than in all of Europe. B) had increased to the point of overpopulation. C) had begun to decline from seventeenth-century levels. D) remained tiny compared with the number in England. E) was about one-third of the population. Ans: D

219 219. On the eve of the American Revolution, social and economic mobility decreased, partly because
A) some merchants made huge profits as military suppliers. B) of peacetime economic developments. C) fewer yeoman farmers were arriving from Europe. D) of the religious impact of the Puritans. E) of the increase in the slave trade. Ans: A

220 220. During the colonial era, all of the following peoples created new societies out of diverse ethnic groups in America except A) English. B) Africans. C) Asians. D) Indians. E) French. Ans: C

221 221. All of the following conditions caused many Scots to migrate to Northern Ireland and thence to America except A) the poor quality of farmland in Scotland. B) the spread of commercial farming. C) extremely high rent increase. D) persecution for their Catholic religion. E) paying taxes to support the Anglican church. Ans: D

222 222. The Scots-Irish can best be described as
A) fiercely independent. B) loyal to the British king. C) people who did not like to move. D) builders of sturdy homes and well-kept farms. E) strong supporters of the Catholic church. Ans: A

223 223. When the Scots-Irish established a new community, one of the first tasks they undertook was to
A) build a tavern. B) erect a church. C) establish a court. D) institute a theocracy. E) make peace with local Indians. Ans: B

224 224. When it came to religion, the Scots-Irish
A) showed little interest. B) supported the idea of a theocracy. C) supported the Anglican church. D) advocated the policy of established churches. E) found it to be a bond that held them together. Ans: E

225 225. The most honored profession in early colonial society was
A) medicine. B) law. C) ministry. D) farming. E) merchants. Ans: C

226 226. The least honored profession in early colonial society was
A) medicine. B) teacher. C) minister. D) farmer. E) merchant. Ans: A

227 227. The riches created by the growing slave population in the American South
A) were distributed evenly among whites. B) helped to narrow the gap between rich and poor. C) created a serious problem with inflation. D) were not distributed evenly among whites. E) enabled poor whites to escape tenant farming. Ans: D

228 228. When several colonial legislatures attempted to restrict or halt the importation of slaves, British authorities A) applauded the efforts. B) vetoed such efforts. C) allowed only South Carolina's legislation to stand. D) viewed such colonial actions as morally callous. E) did nothing. Ans: B

229 229. By the eighteenth century, the various colonial regions had distinct economic identities; the northern colonies relied on __________, the Chesapeake colonies relied on __________, and the southern colonies relied on __________. A) cattle and grain, tobacco, rice and indigo. B) furs and skins, tobacco, iron works. C) rice and indigo, lumber and timber, tobacco. D) shipbuilding, iron works, cattle and grain. E) cattle and grain, tobacco, fishing. Ans: A

230 230. The leading industry in the American colonies was
A) fishing. B) manufacturing. C) commerce. D) agriculture. E) slave trading. Ans: D

231 231. One of the surest avenues to speedy wealth in the American colonies was
A) a commercial venture. B) a plantation. C) fishing. D) manufacturing. E) selling slaves. Ans: A

232 232. The triangular trade of the colonial American shipping industry
A) was not that profitable. B) involved America, France, and England. C) relied on the Spanish fleet for protection. D) saw the Spanish gaining the largest profits. E) involved the trading of rum for African slaves. Ans: E

233 233. Of the following, __________ was a secondary economic activity of colonial America
A) fishing. B) commerce. C) farming. D) manufacturing. E) slave trading. Ans: D

234 234. Although manufacturing in the colonies was of only secondary importance, they did produce which of the following? A) rum B) beaver hats C) lumber D) iron E) all of the above Ans: E

235 235. The major manufacturing enterprise in colonial America in the eighteenth century was
A) iron making. B) arms and munitions production. C) lumbering. D) rum distilling. E) making clothes. Ans: C

236 236. Which of the following was not considered to be a naval store?
A) tar B) pitch C) rosin D) turpentine E) glass Ans: E

237 237. One feature of the American economy that strained the relationship between the colonies and Britain was the A) British demand to halt the importation of slaves. B) growing desire of Americans to trade with other nations in addition to Britain. C) lack of any British regulations regarding trade with foreign nations. D) British rejection of the Molasses Act. E) the Americans' unwillingness to trade with the French West Indies. Ans: B

238 238. When the British Parliament passed the Molasses Act in 1733, it intended the act to
A) stimulate the colonies' “triangle trade” with Africa and the West Indies. B) satisfy colonial demands for earning foreign exchange money. C) inhibit colonial trade with the French West Indies. D) increase the colonists' standard of living and protect the livelihood of colonial merchants. E) require Americans to sell their molasses to British merchants. Ans: C

239 239. American colonists sought trade with countries other than Great Britain
A) in order to gain their independence. B) mainly to anger the king. C) to anger Parliament. D) to help strengthen the French. E) to make money to buy what they wanted in Britain. Ans: E

240 240. Transportation in colonial America was
A) surprisingly fast for the time. B) safer by road than by any other means. C) slow by any of the means available. D) so poor that no mail service was established until the 1800s. E) fast only on the waterways. Ans: C

241 241. Colonial American taverns were all of the following except
A) frequented mainly by the lower class. B) another cradle of democracy. C) hotbeds of agitation for the Revolutionary movement. D) important in crystallizing public opinion. E) places providing amusements. Ans: A

242 242. English officials tried to “establish” the Church of England in as many colonies as possible because A) they were concerned about the eternal souls of the colonists. B) the church would act as a major prop for kingly authority. C) such an action would restore enthusiasm for religion. D) the American colonists supported such a move. E) such an action brought in more money to England. Ans: B

243 243. In 1775, the _______________ churches were the only two established (tax-supported) churches in colonial America. A) Methodist and Anglican B) Presbyterian and Congregational C) Congregational and Anglican D) Quaker and Catholic E) Presbyterian and Anglican Ans: C

244 244. Match each denomination on the left with the region where it predominated.
A. Congregationalist 1. the frontier B. Anglican 2. New England C. Presbyterian 3. the South A) A-2, B-3, C-l B) A-2, B-1, C-3 C) A-1, B-3, C-2 D) A-3, B-2, C-1 E) A-3, B-1, C-2 Ans: A

245 245. As the Revolution approached, Presbyterian and Congregational ministers in general
A) remained neutral. B) supported the Revolutionary cause. C) sided with the Anglican clergymen. D) opposed the idea of revolution. E) split on the issue of independence. Ans: B

246 246. By the early eighteenth century, religion in colonial America was
A) stronger than at any previous time. B) holding steadfastly to the belief that spiritual conversion was essential for church membership. C) moving away from clerical intellectualism. D) less fervid than when the colonies were established. E) becoming less tolerant. Ans: D

247 247. The religious doctrine of the Armenians held that
A) predestination determined a person's eternal fate. B) good works could get you into heaven. C) Calvin's ideas should be followed without question. D) emotion had no place in religion. E) individual free will determined a person's eternal fate. Ans: E

248 248. Match each individual on the left with his or her talent.
A. Jonathan Edwards 1. poet B. Benjamin Franklin 2. scientist C. Phillis Wheatley 3. theologian 4. portrait artist A) A-2, B-1, C-3 B) A-1, B-3, C-2 C) A-3, B-2, C-1 D) A-1, B-2, C-3 E) A-2, B-3, C-1 Ans: C

249 249. The “new light” preachers of the Great Awakening
A) delivered intensely emotional sermons. B) rarely addressed themselves to the matter of individual salvation. C) reinforced the established churches. D) were ultimately unsuccessful in arousing the religious enthusiasm of colonial Americans. E) opposed the emotionalism of the revivalists. Ans: A

250 250. The Great Awakening A) undermined the prestige of the learned clergy in the colonies. B) split colonial churches into several competing denominations. C) led to the founding of Princeton, Dartmouth, and Rutgers colleges. D) was the first spontaneous mass movement of the American people. E) all of the above. Ans: E

251 251. The time-honored English ideal, which Americans accepted for some time, regarded education as
A) essential training for citizenship. B) designed for men and women. C) reserved for the aristocratic few. D) unimportant for leaders. E) designed for rich and poor alike. Ans: C

252 252. In colonial America, education was most zealously promoted
A) in the South. B) in New England. C) on the frontier. D) in the middle colonies. E) in those areas controlled by Spain. Ans: B

253 253. Colonial schools and colleges placed their main emphasis on
A) math. B) science. C) modern languages. D) literature. E) religion. Ans: E

254 254. The first American college free from determined control was
A) Harvard. B) Yale. C) New York University. D) Brown University. E) The University of Pennsylvania. Ans: E

255 255. All of the following contributed to the lack of development of art and artists in early colonial America except A) simplicity of pioneering life. B) lack of subjects to paint. C) lack of talent among the Americans. D) lack of patrons who could afford the expensive art. E) lack of art schools in America. Ans: C

256 256. Culture in colonial America
A) involved heavy investment in art. B) was generally ignored and unappreciated. C) showed its native creativity in architecture. D) was always important to the colonists. E) for a long time rejected any European influence. Ans: B

257 257. The person most often called the “first civilized American” was
A) Thomas Jefferson. B) John Trumball. C) John Winthrop. D) Phillis Wheatley. E) Benjamin Franklin. Ans: E

258 258. All of the following are achievements of Benjamin Franklin except
A) the lightning rod. B) influential poetry. C) bifocal glasses. D) a highly efficient stove. E) author of Poor Richard's Almanack. Ans: B

259 259. The jury's decision in the case of John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, was significant because A) he was found guilty. B) it supported English law. C) it pointed the way to open public discussion. D) the ruling prohibited criticism of political officials. E) it allowed the press to print irresponsible criticisms of powerful people. Ans: C

260 260. One political principle that colonial Americans came to cherish above most others was
A) the property qualification for voting. B) one man, one vote. C) the separation of powers. D) self-taxation through representation. E) restricting the right to vote to men only. Ans: D

261 261. By 1775, most governors of American colonies were
A) appointed by colonial proprietors. B) appointed by the king. C) elected by popular vote. D) elected by the vote of colonial legislatures. E) appointed by the British Parliament. Ans: B

262 262. Colonial legislatures were often able to bend the power of the governors to their will because
A) the governors often had a greater sense of loyalty to their colony than to the king. B) the governors were usually chosen by colonial legislatures and could be removed from office by the legislatures. C) the king generally held the views of colonial legislators in higher regard than those of the governors. D) colonial legislatures controlled taxes and expenditures that paid the governors' salaries. E) of the threat of violence. Ans: D

263 263. In colonial elections, A) most eligible voters zealously exercised their right to vote. B) the right to vote was reserved for property holders. C) only a small landed elite had the right to vote. D) average citizens were usually elected to office. E) true democracy had arrived. Ans: B

264 264. By the mid-eighteenth century, North American colonies shared all of the following similarities except A) complete democracy. B) basically English in language. C) Protestant in religion. D) opportunity for social mobility. E) same degree of ethnic and religious toleration. Ans: A

265 265. During the seventeenth century, America established the precedent of
A) staying out of European wars if possible. B) relying totally on the British for defense. C) starting wars in Europe. D) being involved in every world war since 1688. E) fighting wars on both land and sea. Ans: D

266 266. The soldier and explorer whose leadership earned him the title “Father of New France” was
A) Samuel de Champlain. B) Robert de La Salle. C) Antoine Cadillac. D) Des Moines. E) Edward Vincennes. Ans: A

267 267. France was finally able to join in the scramble for colonies in the New World as a result of the A) Protestant takeover of the French government. B) end of the religious wars. C) revocation of the Edict of Nantes. D) St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. E) Seven Years' War. Ans: B

268 268. Government in New France (Canada) was
A) almost completely autocratic. B) democratic. C) similar to that of the English colonies. D) noted for its trial by jury. E) free from the king's control. Ans: A

269 269. Unlike the English colonies in America, in New France
A) there were no popularly elected assemblies. B) the crown refused to promote the welfare of French colonization. C) the population grew very rapidly. D) no valuable resources for exploitation existed. E) the colonists practiced religious toleration. Ans: A

270 270. The one valuable resource in New France was
A) fish. B) gold. C) trees. D) corn. E) beavers. Ans: E

271 271. The coureurs de bois were
A) French soldiers. B) French boatmen. C) Catholic priests. D) French farmers. E) French fur trappers. Ans: E

272 272. The population in Catholic New France grew very slowly because
A) French peasants were not allowed to move. B) the Protestant Huguenots refused to move there. C) the French government was more concerned with its Caribbean island colonies. D) disease took a heavy toll on New France's inhabitants. E) of constant attacks by the Huron Indians. Ans: D

273 273. The primary economic pursuit of early settlers in New France was
A) farming. B) fishing. C) mining. D) fur trapping. E) rum manufacturing. Ans: D

274 274. The Indians suffered from their association with the French in New France in all of the following ways except A) exclusion from the fur business. B) decimation of their numbers by the white man's diseases. C) violation of their religious beliefs. D) debauchery by the white man's alcohol. E) weakening of their traditional way of life. Ans: A

275 275. The Jesuit priests, despite their initial failure in gaining converts, played a vital role because A) of the many converts to Catholicism. B) of the health care. C) they made peace with the Indians. D) they encouraged the Indians to participate in the fur trade. E) of their exploration and work as geographers. Ans: E

276 276. The French wanted to control Louisiana because they
A) liked its climate. B) wanted to keep the area unfortified. C) would then control the mouth of the Mississippi. D) feared Dutch expansion into the territory. E) saw it as a dumping ground for undesirables. Ans: C

277 277. French motives in the New World included the desire to
A) establish agricultural communities to produce profitable staple crops. B) convert Indians to Protestantism. C) compete with Spain for an empire in America. D) provide a place for French religious dissenters to settle. E) compete with Portugal for an empire in America. Ans: C

278 278. The early wars between France and Britain in North America were notable for the
A) large number of troops committed by both sides. B) lack of Indian participation. C) carry over of European tactics to America. D) use of primitive guerrilla warfare. E) all of the above. Ans: D

279 279. During a generation of peace following the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, Britain provided its American colonies with A) a large military presence for protection. B) decades of salutary neglect. C) higher taxes passed by Parliament. D) stronger parliamentary direction. E) all of the above. Ans: B

280 280. The War of Jenkins's Ear was
A) fought in European waters. B) a great victory for Spain. C) confined to the Caribbean Sea and Georgia . D) the event that established the policy of salutary neglect. E) a defeat for France. Ans: C

281 281. The War of Jenkins's Ear resulted in
A) France allying itself with Britain. B) British troops being involved in every territory in North America. C) France losing its vast holdings in North America. D) the colony of Georgia fighting the Spanish to a standstill. E) all of the above. Ans: B

282 282. New England colonists were outraged when British diplomats returned _______________ to France in 1748. A) Hudson Bay B) Acadia C) Louisbourg D) Newfoundland E) Nova Scotia Ans: C

283 283. The clash between Britain and France for control of the North American continent sprang from their rivalry for control of A) Cape Breton Island. B) the Ohio River Valley. C) the Mississippi River. D) the Great Lakes. E) the St. Lawrence River. Ans: B

284 284. The reason France needed to control the Ohio Valley was to
A) stop Spain from extending its empire. B) help win the War of Jenkins's Ear. C) stop the Indian attacks on its outposts. D) link its Canadian holdings with those of the lower Mississippi Valley. E) be able to put more of its settlers there in order to increase farm production. Ans: D

285 285. In his first military command in the French and Indian War, George Washington
A) won a decisive and hard fought battle at Fort Duquesne. B) was defeated at Fort Necessity but was allowed to retreat. C) received strong support from the British. D) helped to force the French out of Nova Scotia. E) turned his twenty years of military experience to great success. Ans: B

286 286. The Seven Years' War was also known in America as
A) the War of Jenkins's Ear. B) the French and Indian War. C) the War of Austrian Succession. D) King William's War. E) Queen Anne's War. Ans: B

287 287. In the colonial wars before 1754, Americans
A) functioned as a unified fighting force. B) received more support from France than Britain. C) demonstrated an astonishing lack of unity. D) were not involved in combat. E) rarely involved Indians in the fighting. Ans: C

288 288. The immediate purpose of the Albany Congress of 1754 was to
A) request the help of the British military. B) keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to the British. C) prevent the French from attacking American outposts. D) support George Washington's desire to head the colonial militia. E) block British efforts to take control of New York City. Ans: B

289 289. Unlike the first three Anglo-French wars, the Seven Years' War
A) won the British territorial concessions. B) united British colonists in strong support of the mother country. C) was fought initially on the North American continent. D) did not affect American colonists' attitudes toward England. E) resulted in a stronger French presence in North America. Ans: C

290 290. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity; (B) General Edward Braddock is defeated near Fort Duquesne; (C) British troops capture Louisbourg in their first significant victory of the French and Indian War; (D) General James Wolfe's army defeats Montcalm's on the Plains of Abraham. A) B, A, D, C B) A, B, C, D C) C, B, A, D D) A, C, B, D E) A, B, D, C Ans: B

291 291. The long-range purpose of the Albany Congress in 1754 was to
A) achieve colonial unity and common defense against the French threat. B) propose independence of the colonies from Britain. C) declare war on the Iroquois tribe. D) prohibit New England and New York from trading with the French West Indies. E) gain peace with France. Ans: A

292 292. Benjamin Franklin's plan for colonial home rule was rejected by the individual colonies because
A) it did not provide for the common defense. B) the British approved it. C) it did not seem to give enough independence to the colonies. D) they did not feel that they had been well represented at the Albany Congress. E) it placed too much power in the hands of local governments. Ans: C

293 293. As a result of General Braddock's defeat a few miles from Fort Duquesne,
A) the British controlled the frontier. B) George Washington was left without a military command. C) the frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina was open to Indian attack. D) General Braddock was forced to leave the military. E) the British called off their planned invasion of Canada. Ans: C

294 294. The British invasion of Canada in 1756 during the Seven Years' War
A) resulted in victory for Britain. B) concentrated on Quebec and Montreal. C) followed sound strategic planning. D) ended in defeat. E) resulted in British control of the St. Lawrence River. Ans: D

295 295. When William Pitt became prime minister during the Seven Years' War, he
A) ended Parliament's practice of reimbursing the colonies for their war-related expenditures. B) ordered a full-scale assault on the French West Indies. C) relied heavily on the older, more cautious generals in the British Army. D) focused his military strategy on the capture of French Canada. E) remained popular with the wealthy but not the poor. Ans: D

296 296. The 1759 Battle of Quebec A) had little impact on the Seven Years' War. B) was a key turning point in Queen Anne's War. C) was a dramatic victory for the French. D) ended the war of French succession. E) ranks as one of the most significant victories in British and American history. Ans: E

297 297. In the peace arrangements that ended the Seven Years' War,
A) France surrendered all of its territorial claims to North America. B) England turned Florida over to Spain. C) Spain ceded all of Louisiana, including New Orleans, to Britain. D) France lost all its valuable sugar islands in the West Indies. E) the British got all of Canada except Nova Scotia. Ans: A

298 298. As a result of the Seven Years' War, Great Britain
A) gained control of Louisiana. B) became the dominant power in North America. C) annexed the island of Cuba. D) gained exclusive control of the slave trade. E) all of the above. Ans: B

299 299. For the American colonies, the Seven Years' War
A) ended the myth of British invincibility. B) left them in need of experienced officers. C) offered the opportunity to grow closer to the British. D) gave them the opportunity finally to gain control of Mississippi. E) helped improve relations between Britain and the colonies. Ans: A

300 300. During the Seven Years' War,
A) colonial militiamen were impressed with the seeming invincibility of the British regulars. B) British officers roundly praised the skillful fighting ability of colonial troops. C) British officials were disturbed by the lukewarm support of many colonials. D) the colonists lost confidence in their own military capability. E) all American trade with Spain and France ended. Ans: C

301 301. With the end of the Seven Years' War, the disunity, jealousy, and suspicion that had long existed in the American colonies A) continued without change. B) began to melt somewhat. C) finally came to a complete end. D) resulted in renewed acts of violence. E) none of the above. Ans: B

302 302. The disunity that existed in the colonies before the Seven Years' War can be attributed to
A) the enormous distances between the colonies. B) geographical barriers like rivers. C) conflicting religions. D) varied nationalities. E) all of the above. Ans: E

303 303. France had to give up its vision of a North American New France when
A) its fishing industry faltered. B) farming proved to be unprofitable. C) King Louis XIV died. D) it was defeated by the British in 1713 and 1763. E) it could not entice enough settlers to America. Ans: D

304 304. When the Acadians left Canada, they went to
A) Florida. B) Louisiana. C) France. D) Nova Scotia. E) the French West Indies. Ans: B

305 305. The isolation of Louisiana's Cajun communities ended
A) during the Civil War. B) only with the civil rights movement of the 1960s. C) with bridge building in the 1930s. D) with intermarriage to Germans, English, and Spanish. E) during the American Revolution. Ans: C

306 306. The primary thing that the Acadians and Quebecois believed that bound them together was their
A) hatred for Spain. B) desire to return to France. C) military experience. D) exile to Louisiana. E) French language. Ans: E

307 307. With the British and American victory in the Seven Years' War,
A) the American colonies grew closer to Britain. B) Americans now feared the Spanish. C) a new spirit of independence arose, as the French threat disappeared. D) the Indians were stopped from ever again launching a deadly attack against whites. E) the British no longer retaliated against the Indians. Ans: C

308 308. In a sense, the history of the United States began with the
A) Revolutionary War. B) July 4, 1776 signing of the Declaration of Independence. C) Boston Tea Party. D) founding of the first colony in 1607. E) fall of Quebec and Montreal. Ans: E

309 309. With the defeat of Chief Pontiac and his alliance, the British decided to
A) stabilize Indian-white relations. B) let the colonists assume financial responsibility for defending themselves. C) remove troops stationed in the colonies. D) enlist the aid of France to halt the Indian menace. E) open land west of the Appalachian mountains to settlement. Ans: A

310 310. Chief Pontiac decided to try to drive the British out of the Ohio Valley because
A) the British were weak as a result of the Seven Years' War. B) the British had deliberately infected Indians with smallpox. C) of the Proclamation of 1763. D) the Indians were in a precarious position. E) the French government had promised to help. Ans: D

311 311. The Proclamation of 1763 was designed mainly to
A) oppress the colonists. B) punish the Indians. C) show the power of Parliament. D) allow western settlement by the colonists. E) work out a fair settlement of the Indian problem. Ans: E

312 312. In the wake of the Proclamation of 1763
A) American colonists obeyed the law they hated. B) relations with France improved. C) relations between the American colonies and the British government improved. D) the American colonies believed their destiny had been destroyed. E) American colonists moved west, defying the Proclamation. Ans: E

313 313. The Proclamation of 1763 A) was warmly received by American land speculators. B) removed the Spanish and Indian menace from the colonial frontier. C) declared war on Chief Pontiac and his fierce warriors. D) prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. E) opened Canada to American settlement. Ans: D

314 314. Change in colonial policy by the British government that helped precipitate the American Revolution involved A) removing British troops from American soil. B) beginning a war with Spain. C) removing the majority of the British navy from American waters. D) compelling the American colonists to shoulder some of the financial costs of the empire. E) all of the above. Ans: D

315 315. When it came to the Revolution, it could be said that the American colonists were
A) eager revolutionaries. B) up until the end wanting more than the “rights of Englishmen.” C) little concerned about economics. D) clearly opposed to tightening commercial bonds to the British. E) reluctant revolutionaries. Ans: E

316 316. In a broad sense, America was
A) a revolutionary force from the day of its discovery by Europeans. B) a place that nurtured a love for Britain. C) completely dependent on Britain for economic support. D) a place where no new ideas took shape. E) none of the above. Ans: A

317 317. The American colonial exponents of republicanism argued that a just society depends on
A) a powerful central government. B) a weak army. C) a strong aristocratic tradition. D) support for hierarchical institutions. E) the willingness of all citizens to subordinate their private interests to the common good. Ans: E

318 318. Republican belief held that the stability of society and the authority of the government
A) rested with the legislature. B) depended on a strong hierarchical culture. C) rested with a strong monarchy. D) rested on an interdependence of all citizens. E) depended on the virtue of its citizenry. Ans: E

319 319. The “radical whigs” feared
A) too much democracy. B) a written constitution. C) the arbitrary power of the monarchy. D) a too powerful parliament. E) all of the above. Ans: C

320 320. Mercantilists believed that
A) a mother country needed to import more goods than it exported. B) power came from a small colonial empire. C) the mother country produced raw materials and colonies produced the finished product. D) a country's economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold and silver in its treasury. E) colonies drained a country of its resources. Ans: D

321 321. The founding of the American colonies by the British was
A) accomplished in a well-planned fashion. B) based on the high-minded aspirations of groups such as the Puritans and the Quakers. C) undertaken by the government in every case. D) undertaken in a haphazard manner. E) rarely undertaken by trading companies or religious groups. Ans: D

322 322. Under mercantilist doctrine, the American colonies were expected to do all of the following except A) supply Britain with raw materials not available there. B) become economically self-sufficient as soon as possible. C) furnish ships, seamen, and trade to bolster the strength of the Royal Navy. D) provide a market for British manufactured goods. E) refrain from exporting woolen cloth. Ans: B

323 323. The first Navigation Laws were designed to
A) help colonists get the best possible price for their trade goods. B) eliminate Dutch shippers from the American carrying trade. C) foster a colonial economy that would offer healthy competition with Britain's. D) encourage agricultural experimentation in the colonies. E) support the mapping of the Atlantic trade routes. Ans: B

324 324. The British Parliament enacted currency legislation that was intended primarily to benefit
A) Virginia tobacco planters. B) British merchants. C) New England merchants. D) backwoods farmers. E) the Crown. Ans: B

325 325. The British Crown's “royal veto” of colonial legislation
A) was used frequently to overturn laws passed in colonial assemblies. B) prohibited colonists from conducting the slave trade. C) was what finally provoked the War of Independence. D) was used sparingly by the British Parliament. E) was opposed by many members of the British Parliament. Ans: D

326 326. Under the mercantilist system, the British government reserved the right to do all of the following regarding the American colonies except A) prevent the colonies from developing militias. B) restrict the passage of lax bankruptcy laws. C) nullify any colonial legislation deemed bad for the mercantilist system. D) restrain the colonies from printing paper currency. E) enumerate products that must be shipped to Britain. Ans: A

327 327. Before 1763 the Navigation Laws
A) were enforced heavily in the American colonies and were very effective. B) hurt Great Britain more than the American colonies. C) were a great burden to only India. D) discouraged smuggling by American colonial merchants. E) were only loosely enforced in the American colonies. Ans: E

328 328. Despite the benefits of the mercantile system, the American colonists disliked it because
A) it forced the South into a one-crop economy. B) it favored the northern over the southern colonies. C) it forced economic initiative on the colonists. D) it kept them in a state of perpetual economic adolescence. E) all of the above. Ans: D

329 329. In some ways, the Navigation Laws were a burden to certain colonists because
A) northern merchants derived greater benefit from the system than did southern planters. B) those colonists were heavily taxed to help provide financing for the Royal Navy, which protected colonial and British trade. C) they stifled economic initiative. D) Britain had the only European empire based on mercantilistic principles. E) they gave greater benefits to slaves holders. Ans: C

330 330. A new relationship between Britain and its American colonies was initiated in 1763 when ____________________ assumed charge of colonial policy. A) Charles Townshend B) George Grenville C) Lord North D) William Pitt E) King George III Ans: B

331 331. Match each act below with the correct description.
A. Sugar Act 1. first British law intended to raise revenues in the colonies B. Stamp Act 2. asserted Parliament's absolute power over the colonies C. Declaratory Act 3. required colonists to lodge British troops in their homes 4. generated the most protest in the colonies. A) A-3, B-2, C-l B) A-1, B-4, C-3 C) A-1, B-4, C-2 D) A-4, B-1, C-2 E) A-2, B-1, C-4 Ans: C

332 332. The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenues in the colonies for the crown was the A) Stamp Act. B) Declaratory Act. C) Townshend Acts. D) Quartering Act. E) Sugar Act. Ans: E

333 333. The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to
A) raise money to support new military forces needed for colonial defense. B) punish the American colonists. C) reduce the number of printed documents in America. D) enable tax collectors to become wealthy. E) raise taxes to a higher level than in Britain. Ans: A

334 334. Passage of the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act
A) led many colonists to believe that the British were expanding colonial freedom. B) convinced many colonists that the British were trying to take away their historic liberty. C) resulted in fewer laws being passed by Parliament regarding the colonies. D) exemplified to many colonists the difference between legislation and taxation. E) required action by each colonial legislature. Ans: B

335 335. Unlike the _______________ Act, the _______________ Act and the _______________ Act were both indirect taxes on trade goods arriving in American ports. A) Townshend, Stamp, Sugar B) Stamp, Sugar, Townshend C) Stamp, Quartering, Townshend D) Declaratory, Stamp, Sugar E) Quartering, Stamp, Sugar Ans: B

336 336. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) Sugar Act, (B) Declaratory Act, (C) Stamp Act, (D) repeal of the Stamp Act. A) A, C, D, B B) C, A, D, B C) C, B, A, D D) B, A, C, D E) A, B, D, C Ans: A

337 337. Colonists objected to the Stamp Act because
A) it was a very expensive tax. B) they believed it could not be repealed. C) Parliament passed the tax, not the colonists. D) they opposed all taxes. E) they wanted their independence. Ans: C

338 338. When colonists shouted “No taxation without representation,” they were rejecting Parliament's power to A) legislate for the colonies in any matter whatsoever. B) levy revenue-raising taxes on the colonies. C) enforce the old Navigation Laws. D) regulate trade in the empire. E) choose colonial legislators who would pass taxes. Ans: B

339 339. Actions taken by the colonists that helped them unite include
A) the Stamp Act Congress. B) nonimportation agreements. C) spinning bees. D) the making and wearing of homemade woolen goods. E) all of the above. Ans: E

340 340. “Virtual” representation meant that
A) almost all British subjects were represented in Parliament. B) every member of Parliament represented all British subjects. C) colonists could elect their own representatives to Parliament. D) Parliament could pass virtually all types of legislation except taxes. E) each member of Parliament represented only people in his district. Ans: B

341 341. Colonial protest against the Stamp Act took the form of
A) convening a colonial congress to request repeal of the act. B) a colonial boycott against British goods. C) violence in several colonial towns. D) wearing homemade woolen clothes. E) all of the above. Ans: E

342 342. As a result of American opposition to the Townshend Acts,
A) British officials sent regiments of troops to Boston to restore law and order. B) the port of Boston was closed. C) Americans killed several British soldiers in the Boston Massacre. D) Parliament repealed all of the taxes levied under this legislation. E) Prime Minister Townshend was forced to resign. Ans: A

343 343. The colonists took the Townshend Acts less seriously than the Stamp Act because
A) they saw the futility of resistance. B) smuggling was nearly impossible. C) it was a direct tax. D) the items taxed were rarely used. E) it was light and indirect. Ans: E

344 344. Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Boston Massacre, (B) Townshend Acts, (C) Tea Act, (D) Intolerable Acts. A) A, B, C, D B) D, B, C, A C) C, B, D, A D) B, A, C, D E) A, C, D, B Ans: D

345 345. Match each individual on the left with the correct description.
A. Samuel Adams B. John Adams C. Crispus Attucks A) A-4, B-3, C-2 B) A-3, B-4, C-1 C) A-2, B-4, C-2 D) A-2, B-1, C-3 E) A-4, B-1, C-2 Ans: B 1. a casualty of the Boston Massacre 2. a foreign volunteer who drilled American troops during the War of Independence 3. a pamphleteer who first organized committees to exchange ideas and information on resisting British policy 4. a Massachusetts politician who opposed the moderates' solution to the imperial crisis at the First Continental Congress

346 346. The tax on tea was retained when the Townshend Acts were repealed because
A) Parliament believed the colonists would not object. B) the money was needed to support troops. C) it kept alive the principle of parliamentary taxation. D) it was the only tax passed by the colonists. E) colonial governors requested it. Ans: C

347 347. The local committees of correspondence organized by Samuel Adams
A) promoted his bid to become governor of Massachusetts. B) promoted independent action in each colony to support the British. C) kept opposition to the British alive, through exchange of propaganda. D) served as a precursor to the United States Postal Service. E) led the Boston Massacre. Ans: C

348 348. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) clash at Lexington and Concord, (B) meeting of the First Continental Congress, (C) Quebec Act, (D) Boston Tea Party. A) C, D, A, B B) B, A, C, D C) D, C, B, A D) A, B, D, C E) A, D, C, B Ans: C

349 349. When Parliament passed the Tea Act, colonists
A) rejoiced that Parliament had seemingly accepted the American definition of representation. B) suspected that it was a trick to get them to violate their principle of “No taxation without representation.” C) immediately called the First Continental Congress into session. D) avoided the tax on tea by buying their tea directly from the British East India Company. E) gave up tea and turned to coffee. Ans: B

350 350. The Boston Tea Party of 1773 was
A) an isolated incident. B) directed only at the British East India Company. C) not the only such protest to occur. D) supported by friends of America in Britain. E) the result of the Intolerable Acts. Ans: C

351 351. The most drastic measure of the Intolerable Acts was the
A) Quartering Act. B) Quebec Act. C) Sugar Act. D) Courts Act. E) Boston Port Act. Ans: E

352 352. The Quebec Act A) outlawed Catholicism in British Quebec. B) denied Quebec a representative assembly and trial by jury. C) restricted Quebec's boundaries to the area north of the Great Lakes. D) was generally ignored by the thirteen seaboard colonies because it had little effect on their relations with Britain. E) granted Quebec a representative assembly and trial by jury. Ans: B

353 353. The Quebec Act was especially unpopular in the American colonies because it did all of the following except A) turn an extensive amount of territory over to Catholic control. B) affect many colonies, not just Massachusetts. C) deny the French the right to retain many of their old customs. D) alarm land speculators, who saw a huge area snatched from their grasp. E) it set a dangerous precedent against jury trials. Ans: C

354 354. The First Continental Congress was called in order to
A) consider ways of redressing colonial grievances. B) become a legislative body. C) write the Declaration of Independence. D) decide which of Parliament's taxes the colonies would and would not pay. E) help implement provisions of the Quebec Act. Ans: A

355 355. The First Continental Congress
A) was attended by delegates from each of the thirteen colonies. B) adopted a moderate proposal for establishing a kind of home rule for the colonies under British direction. C) made a ringing declaration of America's independence from Britain. D) called for a complete boycott of British goods. E) adjourned shortly after convening. Ans: D

356 356. As a result of Parliament's rejection of the petitions of the Continental Congress,
A) Americans reluctantly obeyed the British laws. B) fighting and bloodshed took place, and war began. C) Sam Adams and John Hancock were arrested. D) America sent new petitions to Parliament. E) Ben Franklin returned to the colonies since his efforts failed. Ans: B

357 357. As the War for Independence began, Britain had the advantage of
A) overwhelming national wealth and naval power. B) an alliance with Spain and Holland. C) a well-organized and united home government and population. D) first-rate generals and a well-supplied professional army. E) all of the above. Ans: A

358 358. All of the following were weaknesses of the British military during the War for Independence except A) second-rate officers. B) soldiers who were incapable of fighting effectively. C) the need to keep many soldiers in Europe in case of trouble. D) the long supply lines. E) brutal treatment of their soldiers. Ans: B

359 359. Many Whigs in Britain hoped for an American victory in the War for Independence because they
A) favored French domination of North America. B) were strongly pacifist. C) feared that if George III triumphed, his rule at home might become tyrannical. D) rejected colonialism. E) opposed the mercantilist system. Ans: C

360 360. As the War for Independence began, the colonies had the advantage of
A) highly reliable and well-supplied troops. B) potential aid from the Armed Neutrality League. C) a well-organized, strongly committed, and united population. D) many outstanding civil and military leaders. E) able naval leaders. Ans: D

361 361. The colonists faced all of the following weaknesses in the War for Independence except
A) poor organization. B) sectional jealousy, which constantly interfered with the appointment of military leaders. C) great difficulties in raising money to support the army. D) the use of numerous European officers. E) a weak central authority running the war effort. Ans: D

362 362. By the end of the War for Independence,
A) the majority of Americans supported independence with selfless devotion. B) America had an army larger than Britain's. C) the American military no longer needed foreign assistance. D) a few thousand American regular troops were finally whipped into shape. E) America had built a strong navy. Ans: D

363 363. African Americans during the Revolutionary War
A) fought for both the Americans and the British. B) fought only for the British. C) fought only for the Americans. D) supported neither side, as both enslaved them. E) seized the opportunity to gain their freedom by running away to Barbados. Ans: A

364 364. Regarding American independence,
A) a majority of Americans supported the cause selflessly. B) most of the American business community sacrificed profit for victory. C) France gave little assistance. D) only a select minority supported independence with selfless devotion. E) Spain was in total opposition. Ans: D

365 365. When the Second Continental Congress met in 1775,
A) its members felt a strong desire for independence. B) it cut off communications with the British government. C) it continued to stall on the creation of an army and navy. D) there was no well-defined sentiment for independence. E) the conservative element was weakened. Ans: D

366 366. Perhaps the most important single action of the Second Continental Congress was to
A) select George Washington to head the army. B) draft new appeals to the king. C) adopt measures to raise money. D) postpone an immediate demand for independence. E) support independence. Ans: A

367 367. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) fighting at Lexington and Concord, (B) convening of the Second Continental Congress, (C) publication of Common Sense, (D) adoption of the Declaration of Independence. A) B, C, A, D B) A, B, C, D C) A, C, D, B D) C, D, A, B E) A, B, D, C Ans: B

368 368. As commander of America's Revolutionary army, George Washington exhibited all of the following except A) military genius. B) courage. C) a sense of justice. D) moral force. E) patience. Ans: A

369 369. The Revolutionary War began with fighting in __________; then in 1777–1778, fighting was concentrated in __________; and the fighting concluded in __________. A) the South, the middle colonies, New England B) the middle colonies, New England, the South C) New England, the South, the middle colonies D) New England, the middle colonies, the South E) the middle colonies, the South, New England Ans: D

370 370. George Washington's selection to lead the colonial army was
A) a poor choice. B) largely political. C) based solely on military experience. D) opposed by New Englanders. E) done with no misgivings. Ans: B

371 371. In 1775, once fighting between the colonies and Great Britain began,
A) America immediately declared its independence. B) the tempo of warfare diminished. C) the colonists denounced the Parliament. D) the colonists affirmed their loyalty to the King. E) all of the above. Ans: D

372 372. The colonial army eventually lost the Battle of Bunker Hill because its troops were
A) outnumbered. B) short of gunpowder. C) poorly organized. D) poor shots. E) lacking in courage. Ans: B

373 373. King George III officially declared the colonies in rebellion just after
A) the armed clash at Lexington and Concord. B) the First Continental Congress convened. C) the Battle of Bunker Hill. D) Benedict Arnold's forces' captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point. E) hiring Hessian solders to fight in America. Ans: C

374 374. The Olive Branch Petition
A) was passed by Parliament. B) was an expression of King George III's desire for peace. C) promised no treason charges if colonists stopped fighting. D) was an attempt by the colonists to gain support of Native Americans. E) professed American loyalty to the crown. Ans: E

375 375. With the American invasion of Canada in 1775,
A) the French Canadians took the opportunity to revolt against British control. B) Benedict Arnold seized the occasion to desert to the British. C) the colonials' claim that they were merely fighting defensively for a redress of grievances was contradicted. D) the Revolution became a world war. E) George III declared the colonies in rebellion. Ans: C

376 376. The colonists' invasion of Canada in 1775
A) contradicted the American claim that they were only fighting defensively. B) was of little strategic value for the colonists. C) was eagerly welcomed by French-Canadian leaders. D) resulted in the capture of both Montreal and Quebec. E) resulted in Benedict Arnold's defection to Great Britain. Ans: A

377 377. The colonists delayed declaring their independence until July 4, 1776, for all of the following reasons except A) lack of military victories. B) support for the tradition of loyalty to the empire. C) the realization that the colonies were not united. D) fear of British military reprisals. E) a continued belief that America was part of the transatlantic community. Ans: A

378 378. One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to
A) warn other nations to stay out of the Revolution. B) ask for an end to slavery. C) appeal for fairer treatment by Parliament. D) explain to the rest of the world why the colonies had revolted. E) condemn Parliament for its actions. Ans: D

379 379. In a republic, power A) comes from the aristocrats. B) comes from a select few based on religion. C) comes from the people themselves. D) resides in property owners. E) belongs only to the educated. Ans: C

380 380. Thomas Paine's pamphlet Common Sense
A) was published before any fighting took place between the colonists and the British. B) remained unpopular for several years before being accepted by the public. C) called for American independence and the creation of a democratic republic. D) called on the British people to overthrow the king. E) led to Paine's eventual arrest and imprisonment in America. Ans: C

381 381. Thomas Paine argued that all government officials
A) were corrupt. B) should derive their authority from popular consent. C) should be part of a “natural aristocracy.” D) need not listen to the voice of the uneducated. E) should not be paid for their service. Ans: B

382 382. The resolution that “These United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states…” was introduced into the Second Continental Congress by Virginia delegate A) Patrick Henry. B) Thomas Jefferson. C) Richard Henry Lee. D) Thomas Paine. E) John Adams. Ans: C

383 383. The feasibility of representative government had been demonstrated in the
A) militia movement. B) Olive Branch Petition. C) Declaration of Independence. D) committees of correspondence. E) all of the above. Ans: D

384 384. Examples of colonial experience with self-governance, which prepared Americans for a republic, included all of the following except A) New England town meetings. B) committees of correspondence. C) militia service. D) the relative equality of landowning farmers. E) the absence of a hereditary aristocracy. Ans: C

385 385. Most Americans considered which of the following to be fundamental for any successful republican government? A) a wealthy class to govern B) the primacy of the property rights of individuals C) primacy of the interests of individuals D) retention of a constitutional monarchy E) civic virtue Ans: E

386 386. When America became a republic and political power no longer rested with an all-powerful king,
A) the American colonies were able to gain their independence. B) England experienced the Glorious Revolution. C) individuals needed to sacrifice their own self-interest to the public good. D) chaos gripped the nation. E) all of the above. Ans: C

387 387. Which individual privately advocated equality for women?
A) Betsy Ross B) Thomas Jefferson C) Martha Washington D) Benjamin Franklin E) Abigail Adams Ans: E

388 388. The Declaration of Independence did all of the following except
A) invoke the natural rights of humankind to justify revolt. B) catalog the tyrannical actions of King George III. C) argue that royal tyranny justified revolt. D) offered the British one last chance at reconciliation. E) accused the British of violating the natural rights of the Americans. Ans: D

389 389. Americans who opposed independence for the colonies were labeled __________ or _______________, and the independence-seeking Patriots were also known as _______________. A) Tories, Whigs, Loyalists B) Loyalists, Tories, Whigs C) Whigs, Tories, Loyalists D) Loyalists, Whigs, Tories E) Sons of Liberty, Tories, Whigs Ans: B

390 390. Like many revolutions, the American Revolution was
A) a majority movement. B) a minority movement. C) started by forces outside the country. D) one in which little attention was given to those civilians who remained neutral. E) one which produced a minimum of violence. Ans: B

391 391. The Patriot militia played a crucial role in the Revolution in all of the following ways except
A) taking up the task of “political” education. B) raising funds to support the war effort. C) convincing people that the British army was an unreliable friend. D) mercilessly harassing small British detachments. E) as effective agents of Revolutionary ideas. Ans: B

392 392. The Americans who continued to support the crown after independence had been declared were more likely to be all of the following except A) well educated. B) from among the older generation. C) affiliated with the Anglican church. D) from New England. E) wealthy. Ans: D

393 393. Many Americans remained loyalists during the Revolution for all of the following reasons except
A) fear of retribution. B) they believed a Patriot victory would lead to anarchy. C) some were promised freedom. D) they believed the British would preserve religious toleration. E) they believed in British military superiority. Ans: A

394 394. Which of the following fates befell Loyalists after the Revolutionary War?
A) Some fled to England. B) Some re-established themselves in America. C) Some had their property confiscated. D) Some were exiled. E) all of the above. Ans: E

395 395. All of the following fates befell colonial Loyalists except
A) tarring and feathering. B) subjection to a reign of terror. C) imprisonment. D) exile. E) riding astride fence rails. Ans: B

396 396. Loyalists were least numerous in
A) New York B) Pennsylvania. C) Virginia. D) the middle colonies. E) New England. Ans: E

397 397. To help the British, colonial Loyalists did all of the following except
A) fight for the British. B) serve as spies. C) pay extra taxes to fund the war. D) keep Patriot soldiers at home to protect their families. E) incite the Indians. Ans: C

398 398. General William Howe did not pursue and defeat George Washington's army after the Battle of Long Island for all of the following reasons except A) he remembered the slaughter of Bunker Hill. B) the country was rough. C) supplies were slow in coming. D) he did not relish the rigors of a winter campaign. E) he lacked sufficient naval support. Ans: E

399 399. In late 1776 and early 1777, George Washington helped restore confidence in America's military by A) defeating the Hessians at Trenton and the British at Princeton. B) securing the support of France for the American war effort with a victory in New York City. C) gaining a pay raise for American troops. D) bringing in Alexander Hamilton as his aide. E) providing adequate food and clothing for the soldiers. Ans: A

400 400. The basic strategy of the British in 1777 was to try to
A) control the Delaware Valley. B) invade the southern colonies. C) isolate New England. D) hold the cities and let colonists control the countryside. E) isolate the South. Ans: C

401 401. Match each British general below with the battle in which he was involved.
A. William Howe1. SaratogaB. John Burgoyne2. YorktownC. Charles Cornwallis3. Long IslandD. Nathanael Greene  A) A-1, B-2, C-3 B) A-3, B-1, C-2 C) A-3, C-2, D-1 D) B-1, C-2, D-3 E) C-1, B-2, D-3 Ans: B

402 402. Arrange these battles in chronological order: (A) Trenton, (B) Saratoga, (C) Long Island, (D) Charleston. A) B, C, A, D B) C, A, B, D C) C, B, A, D D) C, B, D, A E) A, B, C, D Ans: B

403 403. The basic principles of the “Model Treaty” and the new philosophy behind American international affairs, contained all of the following except A) no political connection. B) no military connection. C) only commercial connection. D) no economic connection. E) novus ordo seculorum – “a new order for the ages.” Ans: D

404 404. The Battle of Saratoga was a key victory for the Americans because it
A) brought the British to offer recognition of colonial independence. B) brought the colonists much-needed aid and a formal alliance with France. C) prevented the fighting from spreading into the southern colonies. D) prevented the colonial capital from being captured by the British. E) kept Benedict Arnold from joining the British. Ans: B

405 405. The basic principles in the “Model Treaty”
A) were considered old-fashioned and out-dated. B) were self-denying restrictions to the Americans. C) were not popular among most enlightened figures in America. D) held that military conflict would still determine international relations among countries. E) infused an element of realism into American attitudes toward international affairs that proved short-sighted and inconsistent. Ans: B

406 406. France came to America's aid in the Revolution because
A) French officials supported our cause of democracy. B) it hoped to gain access to the American fur trade. C) it wanted revenge against the British. D) it could use America to test new military tactics. E) all of the above. Ans: C

407 407. America's first entangling alliance was with
A) Great Britain. B) France. C) Spain. D) Holland. E) Russia. Ans: B

408 408. Who was the American diplomat that negotiated the “Model Treaty” with France?
A) John Adams B) Thomas Jefferson C) Thomas Paine D) Benjamin Franklin E) Patrick Henry Ans: D

409 409. The Armed Neutrality League was started by
A) Louis XIV of France. B) Charles V of Spain. C) Catherine the Great of Russia. D) King Leopold of Belgium. E) George III of Britain. Ans: C

410 410. When the alliance with France was formalized, the Americans were able to
A) gain access to large sums of money. B) double the size of their fighting forces. C) avail themselves of French naval strength. D) gain immense amounts of equipment. E) all of the above. Ans: E

411 411. The commander of French troops in America was
A) Rochambeau. B) Lafayette. C) de Grasse. D) Burgoyne. E) Howe. Ans: A

412 412. French aid to the colonies
A) greatly aided America's struggle for independence. B) was motivated by what the French considered to be their own national interests. C) forced the British to change their military strategy in America. D) helped them protect their own West Indies islands. E) all of the above. Ans: E

413 413. Shortly after French troops arrived in America, the resulting improvement in morale staggered when A) America discovered the true reasons motivating France's assistance. B) General Benedict Arnold turned traitor. C) General Nathanael Greene lost Georgia to the British. D) the French began to win battles that the Americans had been unable to win. E) the Armed Neutrality League sided with Britain. Ans: B

414 414. The colonists suffered their heaviest losses of the Revolutionary War at the Battle of
A) Charleston. B) Cowpens. C) Valley Forge. D) Long Island. E) Brandywine Creek. Ans: A

415 415. Match each individual below with the correct descriptive phrase.
A. George Rogers Clark B. Nathanael Greene C. John Paul Jones 1. commanded the Patriot invasion of Canada 2. commanded Patriot troops in the South 3. commanded Patriot troops in the West 4. commanded Patriot naval forces A) A-4, B-3, C-l B) A-2, B-1, C-4 C) A-3, B-2, C-4 D) A-1, B-4, C-3 E) A-4, B-3, C-2 Ans: C

416 416. Some Indian nations joined the British during the Revolutionary War because
A) the British threatened them with destruction if they did not help. B) they believed that a British victory would restrain American expansion into the West. C) the British hired them as mercenaries. D) they were bound by treaties. E) none of the above. Ans: B

417 417. The “Fighting Quaker” who cleared most of Georgia and South Carolina was
A) Charles Cornwallis. B) Benedict Arnold. C) Joseph Brant. D) Benjamin Smith. E) Nathanael Greene. Ans: E

418 418. The Indian chief who fought for the British in New York and Pennsylvania was
A) Seneca. B) Pontiac. C) Joseph Brant. D) King Philip. E) Cowpens. Ans: C

419 419. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the first treaty between the United States and an Indian nation, resulted in A) the ceding of most of the Iroquois' land. B) an end to the practice of scalping. C) the slowing of the westward movement of pioneers. D) the renunciation by the Oneidas and the Tuscaroras of their support for the British. E) turning over the “hair buyers” for prosecution. Ans: A

420 420. During the Revolution, the frontier saw much fighting, which
A) slowed the westward advance of the pioneers. B) caused most of the Indians to join the colonists' cause against the British. C) led to George Rogers Clark's downfall as a military leader. D) failed to stem the tide of westward-moving pioneers. E) ultimately led Benedict Arnold to go over to the British. Ans: D

421 421. The most important contribution of the seagoing “privateers” during the Revolutionary War was that they A) gained control of the sea for the colonists. B) successfully invaded the British West Indies. C) captured hundreds of British merchant ships. D) fought the British navy to a standstill. E) made reliance on the French unnecessary. Ans: C

422 422. After the British defeat at Yorktown,
A) the fighting continued for more than a year. B) the war ended within a month. C) the French withdrew their assistance as it was no longer needed. D) King George III decided to end the struggle. E) Spain finally entered the war on our side. Ans: A

423 423. American diplomats to the peace negotiations in Paris in were instructed by the Second Continental Congress to A) accept any British offer that would essentially return British-American relations to their pre-1763 status. B) demand British cession of the trans-Allegheny West to the colonies. C) get the colonies out of their obligations under the Franco-American alliances. D) consult with the colonies' French allies and make no separate peace arrangements with the British. E) follow the lead of Spain, not France. Ans: D

424 424. Britain gave America generous terms in the Treaty of Paris because British leaders
A) realized that they had been beaten badly. B) wanted to help Spain as well. C) had changed from Whig to Tory. D) were trying to persuade America to abandon its alliance with France. E) feared continued war might lead to a loss of their Latin American colonies. Ans: D

425 425. Regarding the provisions of the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which formally ended the Revolution,
A) America faithfully adhered to each one. B) France was pleased with the results. C) America broke the assurances regarding treatment of the Loyalists. D) Spain gained all it wanted. E) America followed French instructions to the letter. Ans: C

426 426. Continental army officers attempting to form the Society of the Cincinnati
A) were brought to trial for trying to sabotage the civil government. B) were ridiculed for their lordly pretensions. C) were trying to force the Congress to pay them their pensions. D) reflected the Revolutionary War generation's spirit of equality. E) represented the best of the officer corps. Ans: B

427 427. The American Revolution was
A) truly radical. B) inconsequential in world history. C) an example of accelerated evolution rather than outright revolution. D) very much like the French revolution. E) very much like the Russian revolution. Ans: C

428 428. The world's first antislavery society was founded by
A) Thomas Jefferson. B) Quakers in Philadelphia. C) Puritans in New England. D) Catholics in Maryland. E) the Congregational church. Ans: B

429 429. As part of the egalitarian movement of the American Revolution,
A) several northern states abolished slavery. B) most states outlawed the overseas trade in indentured servants. C) many states repealed laws against interracial marriage. D) some southern states passed legislation providing for the gradual abolition of slavery. E) laws against interracial marriage were eliminated. Ans: A

430 430. Early signs of the abolitionist movement can be seen in the
A) Articles of Confederation. B) Constitution. C) emancipation of some slaves. D) passage of laws allowing interracial marriage. E) abolition of slavery in a few southern states. Ans: C

431 431. The Founding Fathers failed to eliminate slavery because
A) they did not truly believe in democracy. B) a fight over slavery might destroy national unity. C) they were more concerned with securing equality for women. D) the North, as its industry expanded, began to rely more heavily on slave labor. E) economic conditions would not allow such a loss. Ans: B

432 432. The struggle for divorce between religion and government proved fiercest in
A) Georgia B) Virginia C) Pennsylvania D) New York E) Maryland Ans: B

433 433. As a result of the Revolution's emphasis on equality, all of the following were achieved except
A) the reduction of property qualifications for voting by most states. B) the growth of trade organizations for artisans and laborers. C) the establishment of the world's first antislavery society. D) full equality between women and men. E) abolishing medieval inheritance laws. Ans: D

434 434. The most important outcome of the Revolution for white women was that they
A) permanently gained the right to vote. B) were allowed to serve in the national legislature. C) were elevated as special keepers of the nation's conscience. D) finally gained fully equal status with white males. E) were given the right to vote in some states. Ans: C

435 435. As written documents, the state constitutions were intended to
A) represent a fundamental law superior to ordinary legislation. B) be subordinate to state laws. C) grant the governor more power than the legislature. D) keep the government in the hands of the well-to-do. E) reaffirm states' rights. Ans: A

436 436. As a means of ensuring that legislators stay in touch with the mood of the people, state constitutions A) were rewritten once every ten years. B) were rewritten once every five years. C) required yearly visits to the homes of their constituents. D) stipulated that ordinary legislation could override the constitution. E) required the annual election of legislators. Ans: E

437 437. As a result of the Revolution, many state capitals were relocated westward
A) because better roads now made this territory more easily accessible. B) due to a fear of British capture. C) because water routes were now opened to the interior regions D) to get them away from the haughty eastern seaports. E) all of the above. Ans: D

438 438. One reason that the United States avoided the frightful excesses of the French Revolution is that A) America declared martial law until the Constitution was enacted in 1789. B) the American Revolution suddenly overturned the entire political framework. C) cheap land was easily available. D) political democracy preceded economic democracy. E) a strong sense of class consciousness already existed. Ans: C

439 439. It was highly significant to the course of future events that
A) political democracy preceded economic democracy in the United States. B) deflation rather than inflation resulted from the Revolution. C) no economic depression occurred as a consequence of the Revolution. D) economic democracy preceded political democracy in the United States. E) the United States went off the gold standard after the Revolution. Ans: D

440 440. The economic status of the average American at the end of the Revolutionary War was
A) better than before the war. B) probably worse than before the war. C) about the same as before the war. D) more closely tied to Britain than before the war. E) more closely tied to France than before the war. Ans: B

441 441. Immediately after the Revolution, the new American nation's greatest strength lay in its
A) ingrained respect for authority. B) excellent political leadership. C) lack of inhibiting political heritage. D) sound economic structure. E) economic ties to France. Ans: B

442 442. The Second Continental Congress of Revolutionary days
A) operated with strong constitutional authority. B) still did not comprise representatives from all thirteen states. C) took away the sovereignty of the states. D) was little more than a conference of ambassadors with very limited power. E) did little of lasting value. Ans: D

443 443. The Articles of Confederation were finally approved when
A) agreement was reached on who would be president. B) states gave up their right to coin money. C) all states claiming western lands surrendered them to the national government. D) the states gave up their power to establish tariffs. E) a two-house national legislature was added. Ans: C

444 444. The major issue that delayed ratification of the Articles of Confederation concerned
A) taxation. B) tariff policy. C) monetary policy. D) western lands. E) monetary standards. Ans: D

445 445. The Articles of Confederation left Congress unable to
A) organize development of the western lands. B) deal with foreign affairs. C) apportion state representation equally. D) enforce a tax-collection program. E) establish a postal service. Ans: D

446 446. A major strength of the Articles of Confederation was its
A) control over interstate commerce. B) strong judicial branch. C) presentation of the ideal of a united nation. D) ability to coin money. E) strong executive branch. Ans: C

447 447. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
A) provided for the survey and sale of public lands in the Old Northwest. B) established a procedure for governing the Old Northwest territory. C) banned slavery from all territories of the United States. D) cleared the way for ratification of the Articles of Confederation. E) gave control over land to the territories in which they were located. Ans: B

448 448. One of the most farsighted provisions of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787
A) set aside a section of each township for education. B) abolished slavery in all of the United States. C) prohibited slavery in the Old Northwest. D) kept power in the national government. E) none of the above. Ans: C

449 449. The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for all of the following except
A) money from land sales should be used to pay off the national debt. B) the land should be surveyed before its sale. C) the territory should be divided into townships six miles square. D) the sixteenth section should be sold to support education. E) prohibiting slavery. Ans: E

450 450. Match each nation on the left with the correct description of the problem it presented for U.S. foreign relations following the Revolutionary War. A. Britain B. France C. Spain D. Barbary Coast 1. threatened American commerce in the Mediterranean 2. demanded repayment of wartime loans 3. occupied a chain of trading forts in the Old Northwest 4. controlled important trade routes from the interior of North America A) A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4 B) A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3 C) A-2, B-2, C-3, D-4 D) A-3, B-2, C-4, D-1 E) A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3 Ans: D

451 451. After the Revolutionary War, both Britain and Spain
A) tried to gain control of Florida. B) did their best to win the friendship of America. C) prevented America from exercising effective control over about half of its total territory. D) helped America to fight the pirates in North America. E) abandoned their fortifications in the Old Northwest. Ans: C

452 452. Shays's Rebellion was provoked by
A) fear that the Articles of Confederation had created too strong a national government for the United States. B) efforts by wealthy merchants to replace the Articles of Confederation with a new constitution. C) a quarrel over the boundary between Massachusetts and Vermont. D) foreclosures on the mortgages of backcountry farmers. E) the government's failure to pay bonuses to Revolutionary War veterans. Ans: D

453 453. Shays's Rebellion convinced many Americans of the need for
A) lower taxes. B) granting long-delayed bonuses to Revolutionary War veterans. C) a vigilante effort by westerners to halt the Indian threat. D) a stronger central government. E) a weaker military presence in the West. Ans: D

454 454. Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the thirteen states
A) improved to the point of total unity. B) was good economically but poor politically. C) led to a single currency. D) convinced many that a stronger central government was needed. E) was good politically but poor economically. Ans: D

455 455. The debate between the supporters and critics of the Articles of Confederation centered on how to A) reconcile states' rights with strong national government. B) transfer territories to equal statehood. C) abolish slavery yet preserve national unity. D) balance the power of legislative and executive offices of government. E) conduct foreign policy while remaining neutral. Ans: A

456 456. The issue that finally touched off the movement toward the Constitutional Convention was
A) control of public lands. B) control of commerce. C) Indian policy. D) monetary policy. E) foreign threats to our independence. Ans: B

457 457. By the time the Constitution was adopted in 1789,
A) the American economy was continuing to experience problems. B) prosperity was beginning to return. C) foreign trade was still in terrible shape. D) inflation was continuing to increase. E) the issue of states' rights had all but disappeared. Ans: B

458 458. The Constitutional Convention was called to
A) write a completely new constitution. B) allow the most radical Revolutionary leaders to write their ideas into law. C) weaken the power of the central government. D) revise the Articles of Confederation. E) reassess our foreign alliances. Ans: D

459 459. Which of the following Revolutionary leaders was NOT present at the Constitutional Convention?
A) Thomas Jefferson B) Benjamin Franklin C) James Madison D) George Washington E) Alexander Hamilton Ans: A

460 460. The delegate whose contributions to the Philadelphia Convention were so notable that he has been called the “Father of the Constitution” was A) George Washington. B) Benjamin Franklin. C) James Madison. D) Thomas Jefferson. E) Patrick Henry. Ans: C

461 461. The delegates at the Constitutional Convention were concerned mainly with
A) abolishing slavery. B) establishing a very powerful military. C) protecting America from its weaknesses abroad and its excesses at home. D) ensuring that the states continue to control tariff policies. E) establishing the principle of states' rights. Ans: C

462 462. Most of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention could best be labeled
A) states' rightists. B) antifederalists. C) nationalists. D) ordinary citizens. E) counter revolutionaries. Ans: C

463 463. Motives of the delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia include all of the following except A) to preserve the union. B) to forestall anarchy. C) to ensure the security of life and property. D) to curb unrestrained democracy E) to increase individual freedom. Ans: E

464 464. The “large-state plan” put forward in the Constitutional Convention
A) ultimately provided the framework of the Constitution. B) was proposed by Patrick Henry. C) favored states such as New Jersey. D) favored southern states over northern states. E) based representation in the House and Senate on population. Ans: E

465 465. The Great Compromise at the Constitutional Convention worked out an acceptable scheme for
A) regulating interstate commerce. B) levying taxes for raising a militia. C) apportioning congressional representation. D) electing the president. E) choosing Senators. Ans: C

466 466. Under the Constitution, the president of the United States was to be elected by a majority vote of the A) general public. B) Senate. C) Electoral College. D) House of Representatives. E) state legislatures. Ans: C

467 467. The idea that all tax measures should start in the House was made to appease
A) the least populated states. B) western states. C) eastern states. D) the industrialists. E) the big states with the most people. Ans: E

468 468. The Constitutional Convention addressed the North-South controversy over slavery through the
A) “large-state plan.” B) “small-state plan.” C) “three-fifths” compromise. D) closing of the slave trade until 1807. E) Northwest Ordinance. Ans: C

469 469. Which of the following is a compromise in the Constitution?
A) counting all slaves in apportioning membership in the House B) continuation of the foreign slave trade C) direct election of the president D) control of interstate commerce by the national government E) prohibiting states from abolishing slave trade Ans: B

470 470. By their actions, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention manifested their common beliefs in all of the following except A) government by the consent of the governed. B) checks and balances in government. C) manhood-suffrage democracy. D) the sanctity of private property. E) a stronger central government. Ans: C

471 471. The one branch of the government elected directly by the people is the
A) military. B) House of Representatives. C) executive. D) judiciary. E) Senate. Ans: B

472 472. The new Constitution established the idea that the only legitimate government was one based on
A) a strong central government. B) an unwritten constitution. C) the authority of the state. D) control by wealthier people. E) the consent of the governed. Ans: E

473 473. The ultimate guarantor of liberty and justice was
A) the authority of the state. B) a written constitution. C) an independent judicial system. D) the virtue of the people. E) all of the above. Ans: D

474 474. The delegates at the Constitutional Convention stipulated that the new Constitution be ratified by A) state conventions. B) state legislatures. C) popular referendum. D) majority vote in the Congress. E) the judiciary. Ans: A

475 475. The antifederalist camp included all of the following groups except
A) supporters of a strong central authority. B) states' rights supporters. C) backcountry dwellers. D) paper money advocates. E) debtors. Ans: A

476 476. Probably the most alarming characteristic of the new Constitution to those who opposed it was the A) creation of a federal district for the national capital. B) creation of a standing army. C) absence of a bill of rights. D) omission of any reference to God. E) creation of the presidency. Ans: C

477 477. Among other views, The Federalist, written during the ratification debate, argued that it was
A) impossible to safeguard the rights of states from the power of a strong central government. B) possible to extend a republican form of government over a large territory. C) inevitable that slavery would be abolished in the new republic. D) illegal to replace the Articles of Confederation with a new constitution. E) best to establish a direct democracy. Ans: B

478 478. Antifederalists believe that the sovereignty of the people resided in which branch of the central government? A) executive B) legislative C) judicial D) cabinet E) all of the above Ans: B

479 479. The federalists believe that the sovereignty of the people resided in which branch of the central government? A) executive B) legislative C) judicial D) none of the above. E) all of the above Ans: E

480 480. One of the enduring paradoxes of American history is that
A) conservatives supported democracy. B) liberals supported democracy. C) both liberals and conservatives have championed the heritage of democratic revolution. D) conservatives and liberals were on opposite sides in the Revolution. E) conservatives opposed democracy. Ans: C

481 481. When the new government was launched in 1789,
A) the nation's population was doubling about every twenty-five years. B) most people lived in the fast-growing cities. C) most people lived west of the Allegheny Mountains. D) New York was the largest city in the nation. E) Great Britain refused to establish diplomatic relations with the United States. Ans: A

482 482. Regarding central authority, early Americans saw it as all of the following except
A) something to be ultimately eliminated. B) something to be distrusted. C) something to be watched. D) something to be curbed. E) a necessary evil. Ans: A