Presentation on theme: "Psychological Disorders. Psychological Disorder (defined) To be considered a “disorder”, the behavior must be: –maladaptive (harmful) or disturbing to."— Presentation transcript:
Psychological Disorder (defined) To be considered a “disorder”, the behavior must be: –maladaptive (harmful) or disturbing to the individual –disturbing to others –unusual to the vast majority of people in that culture –irrational, not make sense to the average person
What is maladaptive, disturbing, unusual, and irrational depends on –the culture –time period –environmental conditions –individual person
School or PerspectiveCause of Disorder Psychoanalytic/PsychodynamicInternal, unconscious conflicts Behavioral Reinforcement history/ the environment Biomedical Organic problems, biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions Cognitive Irrational, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking Humanistic Failure to strive towards one's potential or being out of touch with one's feelings SocioculturalDysfunctional society
Early Theories Evil spirits Music or sing to chase spirits away Trephining Make the body uncomfortable
History of Mental Disorders Not madmen, but mentally ill Treatment involved placement in hospitals
Early Mental Hospitals Barbaric prisons Patients chained and locked away Some hospitals even charged admission for the public to see the “crazies”, just like a zoo
Philippe Pinel French doctor who was the first to take the chains off and declare that these people are sick and “a cure must be found!!!”
Categories of Disorders Anxiety Disorders Somatoform Disorders Dissociative Disorders Mood Disorders Personality Disorders Schizophrenia Other Disorders
Phobia An intense, irrational fear of specific objects or things There is a phobia for just about anything –www.phobialist.com
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Is chronic (at least 6 months), generalized and persistent Characterized by a constant, low level of anxiety
Panic Disorder Characterized by sudden, acute episodes of intense anxiety without an apparent cause
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OCD Different symptoms –Obsessions: persistent, often unreasonable thoughts that can’t be dispelled –Compulsion: persistent act which is repeated over and over Obsessions result in the anxiety, anxiety reduced when compulsive behavior performed
Common Examples of OCD Common Obsessions:Common Compulsions Contamination fears of germs, dirt, etc.Washing Imagining having harmed self or othersRepeating Imagining losing control of aggressive urges Checking Intrusive sexual thoughts or urgesTouching Excessive religious or moral doubtCounting Forbidden thoughtsOrdering/arranging A need to have things "just so"Hoarding or saving A need to tell, ask, confessPraying
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Memories of traumatic event cause intense feelings of anxiety –Can result in persistent nightmares or flashbacks
Psychogenic amnesia Can’t remember things & no physiological basis for forgetting –Organic amnesia is different (2 types of organic): retrograde & anterograde
Fugue Not only forget who the are (psychogenic amnesia) but usually find themselves in place with no idea of how they got there
Dissociative Identity Disorder Formerly know as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) Several distinct personalities No limit to number, age, gender of personalities Theory is the personalities are created to cope with abuse
Major Depression Symptoms of depression include the following: –depressed mood (such as feelings of sadness or emptiness) –reduced interest in activities that used to be enjoyed, sleep disturbances (either not being able to sleep well or sleeping to much) –loss of energy or a significant reduction in energy level –difficulty concentrating, holding a conversation, paying attention, or making decisions that used to be made fairly easily –suicidal thoughts or intentions.
Seasonal Affective Disorder Severe depression every fall and winter followed by normal or elevated mood in the spring Symptoms: intense hunger, weight gain during the winter, sleeping more. Treatment: sunlight (“light therapy”)
Dysthymic Disorder Occurs when a person suffers from a mild depression for at least two years. –No major depressive bouts occur during this time. Treatment –Similar to Major Depression, treatment could include medication and/or therapy.
Bipolar Disorder Also known as manic depression, is characterized by bouts of depression (discussed above) alternating with bouts of mania (an energetic feeling of confidence and power). In many cases, the manic periods are more dangerous than the depressive ones because during mania, the person exhibits extremely risky behavior. Many creative people suffer from bipolar.
Research shows strong biological component Broken down into two types –Bipolar I –Bipolar II Treatment – medication, most common is Lithium –Therapy is beneficial to help patient understand the illness & it’s consequences