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Care of client with musculoskeletal injury or disorder dis

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Presentation on theme: "Care of client with musculoskeletal injury or disorder dis"— Presentation transcript:

1 Care of client with musculoskeletal injury or disorder http://www dis of-client-with-fall-2005orders-care-of-client-with-fall- with-fall-2005

2 What can go wrong Fractures Hip Mandible Degenerative joint disease Osteoporosis Herniated disc Amputation

3 CONCEPTS: FRACTURES Reduction/Realignment Immobilization Nursing care Prevention and early detection: complication

4 Realignment=Reduction Correct bone alignment goal: restore injured part to normal or near-normal function Closed vs. open reduction Open reduction = surgery

5 Immobilization: to maintain alignment Cast Traction External fixation Internal fixation


7 Casts External, circumferential Thermochemical reaction = warmth Nursing care: No weight bearing 24-72 hours “flat hands” Elevate Neuro-vascular checks


9 Cast: Client/Family Teaching Keep dry No foreign objects in cast No weight bearing until MD order (at least 48 hour)‏ Elevate above heart (48 hours)‏ Signs of problems to report Pain, tingling, burning Sores, odor

10 External fixation Metal pins inserted into bone Pins attach to external rods Nursing care: Assess for s/s infection Teach pin care: ½ H2O2+ ½ H2o Open reduction: assess incision Elevate Neurovascular checks


12 Internal Fixation Pins, plates, screws surgically inserted Nursing care: Assess incision site MD orders: activity, weight bearing, ROM, Assess s/s infection; temp. q 2-4 hours Neurovascular checks: 5 “P’s”


14 Traction Pulling forces: traction + countertraction Purpose(s): Prevent or reduce muscle spasm Immobilization Reduce a fracture Treat certain joint conditions

15 Types of Traction Skin Buck’s Russell’s Bryant’s (“babies cry with Bry”)‏ Skeletal Balanced suspension (Lewis, 1660-1661)‏

16 Nursing Concerns/Interventions Assess neurovascular status Assess skin (bony prominences, under elastic wraps, etc.)‏ Assess pin sites (skeletal tx)‏ Maintain correct body alignment Weights hang freely Hazards of immobility




20 Nursing Diagnoses Neurovascular dysfunction, risk for Acute pain, R/T edema, muscle spasms, movement of bones Infection, risk for Impaired skin integrity, risk for Impaired physical mobility

21 Complications of Fractures Compartment syndrome Fat embolism Venous thrombosis Infection

22 COMPARTMENT SYNDROME FACIOTOMY – wound is left open If no improvement, amputation

23 Hip Fracture In 1999 (USA) hip fractures resulted in approximately 338,000 hospital admissions Up to 25% of community-dwelling older adults who sustain hip fractures remain institutionalized for at least a year

24 Hip Fractures One-third of older women who fracture their hip will die within a year because of lengthy convalescence that makes them susceptible to complications, like lung and bladder infections. The Lancet 1999;353:878-82

25 Fracture of hip Types of hip fractures (Lewis pg. 1675): Intracapsular Capital Subcapital Transcervical Extracapsular Intertrochanteric Subtrochanteric

26 ORIF vs “Total Hip” Open reduction/internal fixation: pins, screws, plate(s)‏ Total hip: endoprosthesis – replace femoral head

27 Internal fixation = immobilization

28 Nursing Care Risk for peripheral neurovascular dysfunction Pain Impaired mobility: Prevent thrombus Safety Constipation Risk for impaired skin integrity: Immobility Incision

29 Femoral head prosthesis (total hip)‏ Prevent dislocation: Do not flex > 90 degrees No internal rotation (toes to ceiling)‏ Maintain abduction Do not position on operative side Patient teaching: Precautions for 6-8 weeks Notify dentist: prophylactic antibiotics Lewis: pg. 1678

30 Fracture of mandible Trauma vs. Therapeutic Immobilization: wiring, screws, plate(s)‏ Nursing care: Airway (Cutter with client)‏ Oral hygiene Nutrition Communication

31 What can go wrong Fractures Hip Mandible Degenerative joint disease Osteoporosis Herniated disc Amputation

32 Degenerative Joint Disease: Osteoarthritis Not normal part of aging process Cartilage destruction: Trauma Repetitive physical activities Inflammation Certain drugs (corticosteroids)‏ Genetics

33 Assessment Location, nature, duration of pain Joint swelling/crepitus Joint enlargement Deformities Ability to perform ADL’s Risk factors Weight (history of obesity)‏

34 Nursing Interventions Pain management Rest with acute pain; exercise to maintain mobility Splint or brace Moist heat Alternative therapies TENS, acupuncture, therapeutic touch

35 Surgical management: total joint arthroplasty (replacement)‏ Elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle, etc. Pre-operative teaching: “What to expect” (CPM, abduction pillow, drains, compression dressing, etc.)‏ Postoperative exercises: quad sets, glute sets, leg raises, abduction exercises Pain management: PCA Use of pain scale

36 Total Joint Arthroplasty Post-operative care: 5 P’s Observe for bleeding Pain management Knee: CPM Check incision for s/s infection

37 Total Joint Arthroplasty Postoperative Care Prevent: Dislocation Skin breakdown Venous thrombosis (DVT)‏ TED/Sequential compression Anticoagulants Exercises: plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, circle feet, glute & quad sets

38 Osteoporosis Primary – often women postmenopause Secondary – corticosteroids, immobility, hyperparathyroidism Bone demineralization = decreased bone density Fractures: Wrist Hip Vertebral column

39 Silent disease Dowager’s hump (kyphosis)‏ Pain Compression fractures Spontaneous fractures X-ray can not detect until > 25% calcium in bone is lost Diagnosis: bone density ultrasound

40 Interventions Hormone replacement Calcium & vitamin D Calcitonin, Fosamax, Actonel, Evista Avoid alcohol and smoking Daily weight bearing, sustained exercise (walking, bike)‏ Safety in home (throw rugs, pets, etc.)‏

41 What can go wrong Fractures Hip Mandible Degenerative joint disease Osteoporosis Herniated disc Amputation

42 Location of PPT on Web is below usculoskeletal-disorders-care-of-client- with-fall-2005

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