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Lecture 1 Internet CPE 401 / 601 Computer Network Systems slides are modified from Dave Hollinger and Daniel Zappala Lecture 1 Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 1 Internet CPE 401 / 601 Computer Network Systems slides are modified from Dave Hollinger and Daniel Zappala Lecture 1 Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 1 Internet CPE 401 / 601 Computer Network Systems slides are modified from Dave Hollinger and Daniel Zappala Lecture 1 Introduction

2 Network “... communication system for connecting end- systems” End-systems a.k.a. “hosts” PCs, workstations dedicated computers network components 2

3 Multiaccess vs. Point-to-point Multi-access means shared medium – many end-systems share the same physical communication resources (wire, frequency,...) – There must be some arbitration mechanism. Point-to-point – only 2 systems involved – no doubt about where data came from ! 3

4 Internetwork Connection of 2 or more distinct (possibly dissimilar) networks. Requires some kind of network device to facilitate the connection. 4 Net ANet B

5 The Internet millions of connected computing devices: hosts = end systems – running network apps communication links – fiber, copper, radio, satellite routers: – forward packets (chunks of data) 5 Home network Institutional network Mobile network Global ISP Regional ISP router PC server wireless laptop cellular handheld wired links access points

6 The network edge: end systems (hosts): – run application programs – e.g. Web, email – at “edge of network” client/server peer-peer  client/server model  client host requests, receives service from always-on server  e.g. Web browser/server; email client/server  peer-peer model:  minimal (or no) use of dedicated servers  e.g. Skype, BitTorrent

7 The Internet 7 Internet Mapping Project, Bill Cheswick

8 A Network of Networks roughly hierarchical – Tier-1 ISPs provide national, international coverage – Tier-2 ISPs provide regional coverage – Tier-3 and lower levels provide local coverage any tier may sell to business and residential customers any ISP may have a link to any other ISP – not strictly hierarchical 8

9 Inernet2 Backbone 9

10 Level3 Backbone 10

11 Many Different Internet Service Providers Each network is independent Interoperability requires using Internet standards: IP, TCP – the Internet is global and must run these standards – your private intranet can do whatever you want it to do 11

12 Internet Design Goals primary goal: interoperability among existing networks – a network of networks – obey administrative boundaries secondary goals – fault tolerance – multiple transport protocols – support a variety of networks – distributed management – cost effective, low effort for host attachment, accountability first three were more important, so remaining four did not receive as much attention no mention of security 12

13 Internet Design Principles minimal assumptions about services network should support – ability to send packets – no reliability or security end-to-end principle – keep the core of the network as simple as possible – put complex functionality at the edges – exception: significant performance improvement 13

14 The Internet Hourglass Internet 14

15 Layering Divide a task into pieces and then solve each piece independently (or nearly so) Establishing a well defined interface between layers makes porting easier Major Advantages:  Code Reuse  Extensibility 15

16 The Internet at each Hop 16

17 Interface and Peer-to-peer Protocols Interface protocols describe communication between layers on the same endpoint. Peer-to-peer protocols describe communication between peers at the same layer. 17 Process Transport Network Data Link Process Transport Network Data Link Interface Protocols Peer-to-peer Protocols

18 Protocol An agreed upon convention for communication. – both endpoints need to understand the protocol. Protocols must be formally defined and unambiguous! Protocols define – format, – order of msgs sent and received among network entities, – actions taken on msg transmission, receipt We will study lots of existing protocols and perhaps develop a few of our own. 18

19 The Physical Layer Responsibility: – transmission of raw bits over a communication channel Issues: – mechanical and electrical interfaces – time per bit – distances 19

20 The Data Link Layer Responsibility: – provide an error-free communication link – Data Link Control sublayer – Medium Access Control sublayer Issues: – framing (dividing data into chunks) header & trailer bits – addressing 20 101101101010110001001110110000001

21 The Network Layer Responsibilities: – path selection between end-systems (routing). – flow control. – fragmentation & reassembly – translation between different network types. Issues: – packet headers – virtual circuits 21

22 The Transport Layer Responsibilities: – provides virtual end-to-end links between peer processes. – end-to-end flow control Issues: – headers – error detection – reliable communication 22

23 The Application Layer Responsibilities: – anything not provided by any of the other layers – TCP/IP model Session and Presentation Layer functions Issues: – application level protocols – appropriate selection of “type of service” 23

24 Layering & Headers Each layer needs to add some control information to the data in order to do it’s job. This information is typically prepended to the data before being given to the lower layer. Once the lower layers deliver the data and control information - the peer layer uses the control information. 24

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