Presentation on theme: "Sociological Research"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sociological Research Why is Sociological Research NecessaryFive Ways of Knowing the WorldAdvantages to the Scientific Way of KnowingDescriptive and Explanatory StudiesThe Theory and Research Cycle
2 Why is Sociological Research Necessary? We have seen that commonsense knowledge and beliefs about society are often wrong.The sociological perspective incorporates theory and research to have a more informed understanding of human behaviour.
3 Five Ways of Knowing the World Personal Experience- We have discovered these things on our own.Tradition- “Everyone knows it to be true.” Because it has always been done that way.Authority- When an expert tells us something is true, we believe it.Religion- We accept the word of religious figures or scriptures. (Specific type of authority).Science- This uses controlled, systematic observation. All statements are tested and open to public inspection.
4 Advantages to the “Scientific Way of Knowing”: Science uses the empirical approach; that is findings are based on the assumption that knowledge is best gained by direct, systematic observation.Scientific knowledge is systematic and public. The findings and methods used to reach those findings must be open to scrutiny.
5 Advantages to the “Scientific Way of Knowing”: (continued) Science has a built in method for self- correction. Science does not claim to be an eternal truth, but rather a hypothesis- tentative statements of the relationship between two or more concepts or variables.Science is objective- scientists try to ensure that their biases and values do not affect their research.
6 Descriptive and Explanatory Studies Descriptive studies attempt to describe social reality or provide facts about some group, practice or event.(WHO/WHAT/WHERE/WHEN)Explanatory studies attempt to explain relationships and to provide information on why certain events do or do not happen.(HOW/WHY)
7 The Theory and Research Cycle: DEDUCTIVE SCIENCETheoriesHypothesisObservationsGeneralizationsINDUCTIVE SCIENCE