5 What’s this have to do with cells What’s this have to do with cells? Think about it…cells are like a nationCells need things like a nation needs things…Exports, importsHas bordersWhy may a cell need materials to leave or enter a cell?How might this occur?
8 Cell WallFound in most prokaryotes and some eukaryotes (plants, fungi, algae)Main function is support
9 Types of Cellular Transport Animations of Active Transport & Passive TransporthighlowWeeee!!!Passive Transportcell doesn’t use energyDiffusionFacilitated DiffusionOsmosisActive Transportcell does use energyProtein PumpsEndocytosisExocytosishighlowThis is gonna be hard work!!
10 Passive Transport (HighLow) cell uses no energy molecules move randomlyMolecules spread out from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.(HighLow)Three types:
11 3 Types of Passive Transport DiffusionFacilitated Diffusion – diffusion with the help of transport proteinsOsmosis – diffusion of water
12 DiffusionIn a cell:- cytoplasm a solution of many different substances dissolved in water.As you know:-In any solution, solute particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.= DiffusionDiffusion---- the driving force behind the movement of many substances across the cell membrane.
13 Passive Transport: 1. Diffusion Simple Diffusion AnimationPassive Transport: 1. DiffusionDiffusion: random movement of particles from an area of ______ concentration to an area of _______ concentration.(__________________)Diffusion continues until all molecules are evenly spaced (equilibrium is reached)-Note: molecules will still move around but stay spread out.
14 7-15 diagram pg 209Discuss with a friend and DRAW: What would be different in 7-15 if the high concentration of solutes had been inside the cell to start with?
15 Facilitated diffusion (Channel Protein) Diffusion (Lipid Bilayer) Passive Transport: 2. Facilitated DiffusionAB2. Facilitated diffusion: diffusion of specific particles through transport proteins(protein channels/carriers) found in the membraneTransport Proteins are specific – they “select” only certain molecules to cross the membraneTransports larger or charged moleculesFacilitated diffusion (Channel Protein)Diffusion (Lipid Bilayer)Carrier Protein
16 Passive Transport: 2. Facilitated Diffusion GlucosemoleculesCellular Transport from aHighHigh ConcentrationChannel Proteins animationsCell Membraneto a Low ConcentrationProteinchannelLowTransport ProteinThrough a Go to Section:
17 Osmosis: A Type of Facilitated Diffusion Inside of a cell’s lipid bilayer is hydrophobic—or “water-hating.”water has a hard time getting through.Water channel proteins, known as ______________________ allow water to pass right through them.This movement of water is an extremely important biological =
18 Passive Transport: 3. Osmosis Osmosis animation3.Osmosis: diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membraneWater moves from high to low concentrationsWater moves freely through pores.Solute (green) too large to move across.
19 Rule for Osmosis:Water will get sucked to wherever there is a higher concentration of salt.
20 Osmosis= The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membraneONLY THE WATER is moving.
21 How Osmosis WorksBarrier below is permeable to water but not to sugar.-water molecules can pass through the solute, sugar, cannot.
22 How Osmosis WorksMore sugar molecules on theThe concentration of water is __________________________ where more of the solution is made of sugar.
23 How Osmosis WorksThere is a net movement of water into the compartment containing the concentrated sugar solution.Water will tend to move across the barrier until equilibrium is reached. At that point, the concentrations of water and sugar will be the same on both sides.
24 How Osmosis WorksWhen the concentration is the same on both sides of the membrane, the two solutions will be ______________ which means “same strength.”
25 Osmotic PressureThe net movement of water out of or into a cell produces a force known as osmotic pressure.= the force created by the net movement of water through a cell membrane.
26 Isotonic Solution iso=same Isotonic: The concentration of solutes in the solution is __________________ concentration of solutes inside the cell.Result: Water moves equally in both directions and the cell remains same size!
28 Hypotonic Solution Hypo=less Hypotonic: The solution has a _______ concentration of solutes and a __________ concentration of water than inside the cell. (_______solute; _______water)Result: Water moves from the solution to inside the cell: Cell Swells and bursts open
30 Hypertonic Solution hyper = more Hypertonic: The solution has a ________ concentration of solutes and a ________ concentration of water than inside the cell. (_______ solute; ________ water)shrinksResult: Water moves from inside the cell into the solution: Cell shrinks
32 B C A What type of solution are these cells in? Hypertonic Isotonic Hypotonic
33 How Organisms Deal with Osmotic Pressure Paramecium (protist) removing excess water videoBacteria and plants have cell walls that prevent them from over-expanding. Pressure can damage the cell wall though.A protist like paramecium has contractile vacuoles that collect water flowing in and pump it out to prevent them from over-expanding.Salt water fish pump salt out of their specialized gills so they do not dehydrate.Animal cells are bathed in blood. Kidneys keep the blood isotonic by remove excess salt and water.
34 Passive Transport Review Requires no energyDiffusionOsmosis = Diffusion of waterFacilitated Diffusion: carrier proteins “help” molecules across the membrane like a tunnel
35 Active Transport (Low High) cell uses energy actively moves molecules to where they are neededMovement from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration(Low High)Three Types:
36 Types of Active Transport Sodium Potassium Pumps (Active Transport using proteins)Protein Pumps –Example: Sodium / Potassium Pumps are important in nerve responses.Protein changes shape to move molecules: this requires energy!
37 Active TransportSmall molecules pumped into or out of cell by transport proteins on the cell membrane.Transport goes against a concentration gradientRequires cellular energy (ATP)
38 Types of Active Transport 2. _________________: taking bulky material into a cellUses energyCell membrane in-folds around food particle“cell eating”forms food vacuole & digests foodThis is how white blood cells eat bacteria!
39 Types of Active Transport 3. __________________Forces material out of cell in bulkmembrane surrounding the material fuses with cell membraneCell changes shape – requires energyEX: Hormones or wastes released from cellEndocytosis & Exocytosis animations
41 Molecular TransportA considerable portion of the energy used by cells in their daily activities is devoted to providing the energy to keep this form of active transport working.The use of energy in these systems enables cells to concentrate substances in a particular location, even when the forces of diffusion might tend to move these substances in the opposite direction.
42 This powerpoint was kindly donated to www.worldofteaching.com is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is a completely free site and requires no registration. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching.