Presentation on theme: "What is the medical model? ~Clients/problems should be viewed in the context of the environment in which they occur ~Considers people’s “systems” ~Important."— Presentation transcript:
What is the medical model? ~Clients/problems should be viewed in the context of the environment in which they occur ~Considers people’s “systems” ~Important perspective in social work
What is cognitive development theory? …think Piaget! Assumptions: 1.) Children are born basically good. 2.) Nature and nurture are important. 3.) Children play an active role in their development. 4.) Development is discontinuous or in stages. 5.) These stages are universal.
What are the stages in Piaget’s theory? SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (birth – age 2) SubstageAgeActivity Reflex Activityto 1 monthbaby learns about world through primitive reflexes Primary Circular 1-4 monthsbaby learns reflex actions bring pleasurable Reactionsresults and repeats those actions Secondary Circular4-8 monthsbaby learns to control things other than Reactionsbody and repeats random actions for results Coordination of 8-12 monthsbaby takes several random activities and Secondary Schemesputs them together to achieve goal Tertiary Circular 12-18 monthscan think up activities and experiment to Reactionssee how things work Beginning of 18 to 24 monthstransitions from being action oriented to Representational being symbol oriented; has object Thoughtpermanence; can solve problems
PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (2-7 years) SubstageAgeLimits in Reasoning Symbolic Function2-4Animism Precausal or transductive reasoning Egocentrism Appearance/reality distinction Intuitive Thought4-7Class inclusion Problems of conservation
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE (7-11 years) Mental Operations Children Can Now Perform Reversibilitycan mentally undo a sequence of actions Conservationtwo objects remain the same even if a property of one is changed in a superficial way Classificationcan now classify objects into hierarchical groups Seriationability to organize objects in an orderly series
CENTRAL IDEAS IN PIAGET’S THEORY ~Schema ~Adaptation ~Assimilation ~Accommodation
What is psychodynamic theory? …think Freud! Assumptions: 1.) Human nature is inherently selfish and aggressive. 2.) Nature is more important. Biological forces push child through stages. 3.) Children are passively driven by these biological forces. 4.) Development is discontinuous or stagelike (in psychosexual stages). 5.) The psychosexual stages are universal.
CENTRAL IDEAS IN FREUD’S THEORY Unconscious Preconscious Conscious Id Ego Superego
What are the stages in psychosexual development? ORAL (birth to 18 mos) ANAL (1 ½ - 3 years) PHALLIC (3 – 5 years) LATENCY (5 years to puberty) GENITAL (puberty on)
What is psychodynamic theory? …think Erikson! Assumptions: 1.) We’re born basically good. 2.) Nature or biological forces determine that people will go through psychosocial stages and experience each life crisis, then nurture or social forces determine how each crisis is resolved. 3.) Children actively participate in developmental outcomes. 4.) Development is discontinuous or in stages. 5.) The psychosocial stages are universal.
CENTRAL IDEAS IN ERIKSON’S THEORY Sex and biology aren’t all that important after all! The Epigenetic Principle Biological and social demands push us to the next stage of development, ready or not! Lifespan approach
What are the stages in Erikson’s theory? Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Intimacy vs. Isolation Identity vs. Role Confusion Generativity vs. Stagnation Ego Integrity vs. Despair Infancy (0-18 mos) Early Childhood (18 mos -3 years) Play age (3-6 years) School age (6-12 years) Adolescence Young adulthood Maturity Older age
What is behavioral theory? …think Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, and Bandura! Assumptions: 1.) We’re born neither good nor bad. 2.) Nurture is more important. 3.) Passively shaped by experiences and environment. 4.) Development is continuous and gradual (no stages…yeah!). 5.) Development is particularistic, shaped by life experiences.
What are the beginnings of learning theory? 1.) Classical Conditioning ~Watson’s famous experimentWatson’s famous experiment ~Pavlov and his dogsPavlov and his dogs 2.) Operant/Instrumental Conditioning ~Skinner & ReinforcementSkinner & Reinforcement
What is Bandura’s social learning theory (another form of learning theory)? Assumptions: 1,) Born neither good nor bad. 2.) Nurture is more important. 3.) People are active in their development and can influence their environment. 4.) Development is continuous (no stages – yeah!). 5.) Development is particularistic – depends on experiences.
What are the humanistic theories/approaches? ~Existentialism and the Humanistic perspective 1.) Rogers’s person-centered or client-centered therapy (not your instructor) 2.) Gestalt (Fritz Perls) 3.) Transactional analysis