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Tuesday 9/9/14 Learning Target:

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Presentation on theme: "Tuesday 9/9/14 Learning Target:"— Presentation transcript:

0 What is Science?

1 Tuesday 9/9/14 Learning Target:
Students will know the terminology used in science. Science, Observation, Data, Inference, Hypothesis, Quantitative Data, Qualitative Data, Theory, Control variable, Manipulated variable, Responding variable, Controlled experiment

2 What is science? Definition: List 4 Characteristics:
Science is a way of using evidence (data/observations) to understand the natural world Science that follows a process, which allows for questions to be answered using results (data/observations) Errors in the experiment are minimal (controlled experiment) List 4 Characteristics: Testable hypothesis, clear procedure, easily identified variables, hypothesis answers research question or explains problem What is the goal (purpose) of science? Investigate and understand the natural world; explain events, and use those explanations to make predictions

3 What do we start with? A question. A problem.
Some event or phenomena that needs an explanation.

4 So now we have question/problem…how do we find the answer?
Scientific Method (list and explain the steps) Identify problem Write a research question Write a hypothesis that ANSWERS the question Explain the procedure to test the hypothesis Display and explain results, write observations Write conclusions of observation and results

5 Designing an experiment
Ask a question Form a hypothesis (prediction & reason) If…then…because Set up a controlled experiment manipulated – variable that is changed responding – variable that reacts to the change controlled – variables (need 2) that stay the same Record and Analyze Results Determine if your experiment is reliable and valid. Reliability -- The results in an experiment are repeatable Validity -- How well does the data answer the experiment question? Draw a conclusion Publish/Repeat experiment

6 I have a problem… Problem: My car won’t start.
Design an experiment to figure out how I can discover why my car won’t start. Write a question, hypothesis, and a brief procedure What will the results show us? What is our conclusion?

7 Vocabulary: Chapter Science, Observation, Data, Inference, Hypothesis, Quantitative Data, Qualitative Data, Theory Control variable, Manipulated variable, Responding variable, Controlled experiment

8 Friday 9/12/14 Learning Target: Learning Outcome:
Students will know and apply the principles of designing an experiment. Learning Outcome: Complete the Pillbug Lab Write-Up including drawing of pillbug, graphing, reliability and validity.

9 Is it Alive?

10 Mr. Maher’s New Pet In your notes write down what you observe about Mr. Mahler’s new pet. Be detailed in describing what you see. If you must, draw a picture. Share your observations with your neighbor. In your opinion is Mr. Mahler’s pet alive?

11 What is Alive? How do you decide if something is alive? How do you know? Take a minute and write down your thoughts.

12 What makes something a living organism?
Biology is the study of living organisms Living things share eight characteristics

13 1. Living things are made up of cells.
Unicellular One cell Multicellular Many cells Humans have over 85 different types of cells!

14 2. Living things reproduce.
Sexual – 2 different cells unite Asexual – single parent, cell divides in half (bacteria)

15 3. Living things are based on a universal genetic code.
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid

16 4. Living things grow and develop.
differentiation – cells look different and perform different functions. Nerve cells, muscle cells, skin cells, liver cells

17 5. Living things obtain and use materials and energy.
Metabolism – the building up or breaking down materials to carry out life processes.

18 6. Living things respond to their environment.
Stimulus – a signal to which an organism responds. Examples: Temperature, Light

19 7. Living things maintain a stable internal environment.
Homeostasis – the ability to keep internal conditions constant.

20 8. Living things, taken as a group, change over time.
Evolution – change over time.

21 Scientific Skills Things scientists have to be able to do include…
1. Observation – gather info in an orderly way. 2. Collect data Quantitative – numbers Qualitative – descriptive 3. Data allows us to make inferences – interpreting our data using our prior knowledge. 4. Hypothesis – An explanation for a set of observations. “educated guess” 

22 After multiple experiments (investigations)….
When evidence from numerous investigations builds up; a hypothesis may become so well supported that we call it a theory. Theory – WELL TESTED explanation that unifies or explains a broad range of observations. A testable statement about how nature operates Many theories are so well established that it is very unlikely that any new evidence will alter them significantly, but they can be modified and improved Examples: Heliocentric Theory (Earth revolves around the sun) Atomic Theory (all matter composed of atoms) Cell Theory (all living things made of cells) Evolutionary Theory (organisms change over time)

23 Microscopes! A device we use to magnify images we can’t see with our eyes Light – magnify by focusing visible light Samples are placed on slides to be observed Electron – magnify by focusing beams of electrons. Require a vacuum to operate so they can only look at preserved specimens. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) – electrons scan the surface. 3-D images Transmission electron microscope –electrons shine through a specimen. Internal detail.








31 Microscope Examples Can you identify which type of microscope took pictures A-F? A-D Scanning Electron Microscope E Transmission Electron Microscope F Light Microscope

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