1 Tuesday 9/9/14 Learning Target: Students will know the terminology used in science.Science, Observation, Data, Inference, Hypothesis, Quantitative Data, Qualitative Data, Theory, Control variable, Manipulated variable, Responding variable, Controlled experiment
2 What is science? Definition: List 4 Characteristics: Science is a way of using evidence (data/observations) to understand the natural worldScience that follows a process, which allows for questions to be answered using results (data/observations)Errors in the experiment are minimal (controlled experiment)List 4 Characteristics:Testable hypothesis, clear procedure, easily identified variables, hypothesis answers research question or explains problemWhat is the goal (purpose) of science?Investigate and understand the natural world; explain events, and use those explanations to make predictions
3 What do we start with? A question. A problem. Some event or phenomena that needs an explanation.
4 So now we have question/problem…how do we find the answer? Scientific Method (list and explain the steps)Identify problemWrite a research questionWrite a hypothesis that ANSWERS the questionExplain the procedure to test the hypothesisDisplay and explain results, write observationsWrite conclusions of observation and results
5 Designing an experiment Ask a questionForm a hypothesis (prediction & reason)If…then…becauseSet up a controlled experimentmanipulated – variable that is changedresponding – variable that reacts to the changecontrolled – variables (need 2) that stay the sameRecord and Analyze ResultsDetermine if your experiment is reliable and valid.Reliability -- The results in an experiment are repeatableValidity -- How well does the data answer the experiment question?Draw a conclusionPublish/Repeat experiment
6 I have a problem… Problem: My car won’t start. Design an experiment to figure out how I can discover why my car won’t start.Write a question, hypothesis, and a brief procedureWhat will the results show us? What is our conclusion?
8 Friday 9/12/14 Learning Target: Learning Outcome: Students will know and apply the principles of designing an experiment.Learning Outcome:Complete the Pillbug Lab Write-Up including drawing of pillbug, graphing, reliability and validity.
10 Mr. Maher’s New PetIn your notes write down what you observe about Mr. Mahler’s new pet. Be detailed in describing what you see. If you must, draw a picture.Share your observations with your neighbor.In your opinion is Mr. Mahler’s pet alive?
11 What is Alive?How do you decide if something is alive? How do you know?Take a minute and write down your thoughts.
12 What makes something a living organism? Biology is the study of living organismsLiving things share eight characteristics
13 1. Living things are made up of cells. UnicellularOne cellMulticellularMany cellsHumans have over 85 different types of cells!
14 2. Living things reproduce. Sexual – 2 different cells uniteAsexual – single parent, cell divides in half (bacteria)
15 3. Living things are based on a universal genetic code. DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
16 4. Living things grow and develop. differentiation – cells look different and perform different functions.Nerve cells, muscle cells, skin cells, liver cells
17 5. Living things obtain and use materials and energy. Metabolism – the building up or breaking down materials to carry out life processes.
18 6. Living things respond to their environment. Stimulus – a signal to which an organism responds.Examples: Temperature, Light
19 7. Living things maintain a stable internal environment. Homeostasis – the ability to keep internal conditions constant.
20 8. Living things, taken as a group, change over time. Evolution – change over time.
21 Scientific Skills Things scientists have to be able to do include… 1. Observation – gather info in an orderly way.2. Collect dataQuantitative – numbersQualitative – descriptive3. Data allows us to make inferences – interpreting our data using our prior knowledge.4. Hypothesis – An explanation for a set of observations. “educated guess”
22 After multiple experiments (investigations)…. When evidence from numerous investigations builds up; a hypothesis may become so well supported that we call it a theory.Theory – WELL TESTED explanation that unifies or explains a broad range of observations.A testable statement about how nature operatesMany theories are so well established that it is very unlikely that any new evidence will alter them significantly, but they can be modified and improvedExamples:Heliocentric Theory (Earth revolves around the sun)Atomic Theory (all matter composed of atoms)Cell Theory (all living things made of cells)Evolutionary Theory (organisms change over time)
23 Microscopes!A device we use to magnify images we can’t see with our eyesLight – magnify by focusing visible lightSamples are placed on slides to be observedElectron – magnify by focusing beams of electrons. Require a vacuum to operate so they can only look at preserved specimens.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) – electrons scan the surface. 3-D imagesTransmission electron microscope –electrons shine through a specimen. Internal detail.