Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

EDU 3200 Teaching Grammar in TESL

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "EDU 3200 Teaching Grammar in TESL"— Presentation transcript:

1 EDU 3200 Teaching Grammar in TESL
Integrating Grammar into the Classroom

2 Deductive and Inductive approaches to teaching grammar
A deductive approach starts with the presentation of a rule and is followed by examples in which the rule is applied An inductive approach starts with some examples from which a rule is inferred (Thornbury, 1999, p. 29)

3 Advantages of a Deductive Approach
Gets straight to the point; time-saving Respects the intelligence and maturity of students, esp. adults Meets expectations about learning Allows teacher to deal with grammar points directly

4 Disadvantages of a Deductive Approach
A turn-off as students may be expected to have considerable metalanguage Teacher-fronted, transmission style; teacher explanation vs. st. interaction Explanation is less engaging than other forms of presentation – e.g. demos Encourages viewing lang. as declarative (Thornbury, 1999, p. 30)

5 Advantages of an Inductive Approach
Self-discovery leads to better integration Students are more actively engaged Favours students who like pattern recognition and problem solving Allows for added language practice through problem solving group work Prepares students for autonomy

6 Disdvantages of an Inductive Approach
Time and energy needed Time on understanding rule vs. time on productive activity Hypothesise the wrong rule Demands on teacher in planning a lesson Can frustrate some students who prefer to be simply told the rules (Thornbury, 1999, pp.54-5)

7 Three Dimensions of Grammar Teaching
FORM – How is it Formed? MEANING – What does it mean? USE – When/Why is it used? Larsen-Freeman, 1991

8 Three Dimensions of Grammar Teaching
Form/Structure; Meaning/Semantics; Use/Pragmatics and Discourse Every grammatical structure can be analysed according to these three dimensions Teacher’s task is to identify the learning challenge for his/her set of students (challenge principle)

9 Ensuring Interest in Grammar Activities (Ur, 1988)
Careful selection of the non-linguistic topic of the activity Providing a visual focus Open-endedness in responses Information gaps and personalisation Ensuring pleasurable tension through game-like activities Building an entertainment element into the activities

10 Grammar in Communication
Assist in developing “(a) an awareness of grammatical choice, and (b) the capacity to make the appropriate choices according to given contextual constraints” (Rea Dickins & Woods, 1988, p. 636).

11 General Criteria for Grammar Activities
Whether the presentation is explicit or implicit depends on the situation and learners involved Structures should be integrated in some sort of context or language system There should be a skills-getting and a skills-using phase Practice should be meaningful and help Ss become sensitive to the structures involved Feedback should be built in into the practice

12 In the Classroom (Celce-Murcia & Hilles, 1988)
Presentation of the grammar structure Focused practice for manipulating the structure Communicative practice where the structure is used in communicative activities Teacher feedback and correction

13 In the Classroom (Penny Ur, 1988)
Presentation Isolation and explanation Practice Test

14 In the Classroom (The P-P-P Model –see Thornbury, p. 128 & Ch. 8)
Presentation – grammar explanation Practice – to achieve accuracy Production – achieve fluency Logical appeal Assumption: language is learnt in bits and is linear Assumption: Accuracy always precedes fluency

15 In the Classroom (Task Based – see Thornbury, p. 129 & Ch.8)
Teach Perform a communicative task Teach language that could be used Re-perform the task

16 In the Classroom (The 3E Model -Sysoyev, 1999)
Exploration – Student given examples and asked to find patterns Explanation – With the patterns found, Ss and teachers summarise what has been discovered Expression – Ss start practicing the production of meaningful utterances in meaningful and communicative tasks

17 In the Classroom (The PACE Model -Donato & Hauck, 1992)
P – presentation of meaningful language; Presentation of language as a whole A – Attention; Focus the students attention of selected items in the presentation part C – Co-construct an explanation; Ss and Teachers work together; Teacher can use questions to guide Ss E – Extension activity; allows Ss to use knowledge in a creative way; NOT worksheets – puts the “whole” back

18 In the Classroom (PACE and Whole Language)
The teacher foreshadows the grammar explanation through the use of integrated discourse (e.g. a story) The teacher uses “multiple passes” and recycles the story which deepens comprehension Once meaning is clear, T turns attention to form; Both T and Ss co-constructs grammar explanation Extension activities to allow meaningful use


Download ppt "EDU 3200 Teaching Grammar in TESL"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google