Presentation on theme: "The Respiratory System. Describe the connection between the circulatory and respiratory systems. Pulmonary Arteries pick up Oxygen and drop off carbon."— Presentation transcript:
Describe the connection between the circulatory and respiratory systems. Pulmonary Arteries pick up Oxygen and drop off carbon dioxide at the lungsPulmonary Arteries pick up Oxygen and drop off carbon dioxide at the lungs Pulmonary Veins carry oxygenated blood back to the heartPulmonary Veins carry oxygenated blood back to the heart
What is the difference between external and internal respiration? External: exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the AIR, BLOOD, and LUNGS Occurs OUTSIDE of cells
Internal: Cellular Respiration – occurs inside of cells Oxygen and Carbon dioxide are exchanged between body cells and capillaries, energy is produced What is the difference between external and internal respiration?
Weird Science Facts You breathe about 21,600 times every dayYou breathe about 21,600 times every day If you spread out your lungs, they would cover the floor of a tennis courtIf you spread out your lungs, they would cover the floor of a tennis court Men can hold about 6 quarts of air in their lungs; Women can hold 4.5 quartsMen can hold about 6 quarts of air in their lungs; Women can hold 4.5 quarts
Nose/Nasal Passageway or Mouth Air enters the nose and is filtered, warmed, and moistenedAir enters the nose and is filtered, warmed, and moistened Why?Why? To change the temperature of the air to match body temperature!
Pharynx Tubelike passageway for food and airTubelike passageway for food and air Back of the throatBack of the throat
Larynx Location of vocal cordsLocation of vocal cords Air must pass over them when we speak to make soundAir must pass over them when we speak to make sound **What structure prevents food from entering the respiratory system?** EPIGLOTTIS!!
Trachea (Wind Pipe) Made up of cartilagenous rings to keep airway openMade up of cartilagenous rings to keep airway open Lined with cilia and mucusLined with cilia and mucus **What is the role of the cilia and mucus? To prevent dust and pathogens from entering the lungs
Cilia and Mucus - Animation Cilia and Mucus in the Trachea
Bronchi Two short branches at the bottom of the tracheaTwo short branches at the bottom of the trachea Carry the air we breathe into the lungsCarry the air we breathe into the lungs
Bronchioles Smaller tubes that branch out from the bronchiSmaller tubes that branch out from the bronchi
Alveoli Tiny (grape like) air sacs at the end of the bronchioles Greatly increases the surface area of the lungs Surrounded by capillaries RESPIRATORY SURFACE: site of gas exchange
Gas Exchange at the Alveoli CO2 and O2 are exchanged between capillaries and alveoli by the process of diffusionCO2 and O2 are exchanged between capillaries and alveoli by the process of diffusion Oxygen enters the bloodOxygen enters the blood Carbon Dioxide enters the alveoliCarbon Dioxide enters the alveoli
What is the diaphragm? Flat muscle on the floor of the chestFlat muscle on the floor of the chest Involved in breathingInvolved in breathing Contracts when inhaling, Relaxes when exhalingContracts when inhaling, Relaxes when exhaling
Inhalation RIBS: move up and out DIAPHRAGM: contracts (moves down) CHEST CAVITY: becomes larger AIR PRESSURE: decreases, and AIR ENTERS!
Exhalation RIBS: drop DIAPHRAGM: relaxes (moves up) CHEST CAVITY: becomes smaller AIR PRESSURE: increases, and AIR EXITS!
How is CO2 carried to the lungs by the blood? (Three Ways) 70% of the CO2 will combine with water and form carbonic acid (H2CO3)70% of the CO2 will combine with water and form carbonic acid (H2CO3) 20% will combine with hemoglobin20% will combine with hemoglobin 10% is dissolved in the plasma10% is dissolved in the plasma
The Breathing Rate is controlled by: Concentration of carbon dioxide Center in brain
Regulation of Breathing: Exercise CO2 H2CO3 Blood pH Breathing Rate Breathing Rate is controlled by the amount of CO2, not O2!!
Do Now: Label the Structures The Lungs – Drag & Drop
Diseases Asthma Bronchitis Emphysema Lung Cancer Pneumonia
Emphysema What is it? Lung disease, alveoli break down and cannot hold as much air. TREATMENT: No cure, damage can’t be undone.
Smoking Cigarette smoke contains nicotine, CO, and tar. Smoking paralyzes the cilia in the respiratory tract, preventing harmful particles and mucus from being swept out. Also causes swelling and inflammation of the respiratory surfaces.
Damage to cilia by tar - Animation Damage to Cilia and Mucus
Pneumonia What causes it? Viral or Bacterial infection What is it? Alveoli become filled with fluid and gas exchange is prevented. TREATMENT: Antibiotics
Lung Cancer What causes it? DNA mutation resulting in…What causes it? DNA mutation resulting in… What is it? Uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formationWhat is it? Uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation How is it treated? Radiation, chemotherapy, transplantHow is it treated? Radiation, chemotherapy, transplant