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Unit # 5 Cardiovascular Disease. Cardiovascular Disease Overview #1 cause of mortality in Canada Laboratory Centre for Disease Control; Statistics Canada,

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Presentation on theme: "Unit # 5 Cardiovascular Disease. Cardiovascular Disease Overview #1 cause of mortality in Canada Laboratory Centre for Disease Control; Statistics Canada,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit # 5 Cardiovascular Disease

2 Cardiovascular Disease Overview #1 cause of mortality in Canada Laboratory Centre for Disease Control; Statistics Canada, 1997

3 Cardiovascular Disease Overview Refers to diseases of the heart (“cardio”) and blood vessels (“vascular”) Typically affects – the ability of the heart to pump or – the ability of the blood vessels to deliver blood Arteries bring 02/nutrient rich blood to where it is required Coronary arteries provide the heart with blood

4 Cardiovascular System

5 Major forms of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Atherosclerosis: progressive narrowing of the arteries typically caused by fatty deposits Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)/ coronary heart disease (CHD): atherosclerosis of the coronary artery Heart Failure Hypertension (high blood pressure) Cerebrovascular disease

6 Atherosclerosis

7 Development of Atherosclerosis 1. Begins with a lesion (injury) to the inner wall of the artery 2. Dietary saturated fat is converted into cholesterol, which is carried by lipoproteins in the blood

8 Development of Atherosclerosis 3. The LDL (low-density lipoproteins) and VLDL (very low-density lipoproteins) forms of cholesterol, as well as other fatty substances can deposit in the artery wall

9 Development of Atherosclerosis 4. Over time, this cholesterol is replaced with calcium and other deposits. This calcified area is now known as a plaque At this point, the damage is irreversible

10 Copyright ©2000 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Restrictions may apply. Pasterkamp, G. et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:13-21 Picro Sirius staining for collagen of atherosclerotic cross-sections

11 Major Consequences of Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis can reduce the elasticity of the arteries, making them less able to respond to demand and putting more strain on the heart

12 Major Consequences of Atheroscleorsis Atherosclerosis reduces blood flow and can completely block blood flow if a thrombus (blood clot) gets lodged there

13 Thrombus + Atherosclerosis If this happens in the coronary arteries, a myocardial infarction (heart attack) may occur If this happens in an important artery in the brain, a stroke may occur

14 Acute CVD consequences Angina pectoris is caused by temporary lack of oxygen to the heart. – Symptoms include: chest, arm and neck pain A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is when the brain is temporarily deprived of oxygen – Symptoms include headache, dizziness, loss of consciousness, inability to speak


16 CVD Risk Factors Major Changeable – Hypertension, high blood cholesterol, tobacco smoke, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes Minor Changeable – Stress, low omega-3 FA, high alcohol consumption Non-Changeable – Age, male gender, heredity, ethnicity

17 Major Changeable CVD Risk Factors Hypertension = high arterial blood pressure – Can cause damage to blood vessels, put extra strain on the heart – Cause of hypertension can be unknown. However, high body fat, high salt intake, lack of exercise are known risk factors

18 Major Changeable CVD Risk Factors High serum (blood) cholesterol – Typically caused by eating too much saturated fat – Can deposit in artery walls LDL/VLDL = “bad” cholesterol HDL = “good” cholesterol

19 Major Changeable CVD Risk Factors Tobacco smoke Nicotine can cause lesions in the artery wall Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke is doubly damaging – causes lesions in the artery wall – decreases the ability of the blood to transport oxygen

20 Major Changeable CVD Risk Factors Physical Inactivity: exercise can lower blood pressure, increase HDL and lower LDL and VLDL, reduce stress, maintain body weight and control type II Diabetes. Obesity/overweight, especially abdominal obesity – Can lead to hypertension, low HDL, type II diabetes Diabetes Mellitus: impaired ability of the blood to store glucose (sugar)

21 Major non-changeable risk factors for CVD Age : the older you are, the higher the risk Gender: males are at higher risk than females. Biological difference or cultural difference? Heredity Ethnicity: Higher risk in African Canadians, Latinos, Aboriginals and South Asians

22 Worldwide Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for CVD (WHO, 1995)

23 Other risk factors for CVD Stress: increases blood pressure, increases blood clotting, can increase cholesterol levels Low Omega-3 fatty acid intake: found in cold water fish fat. Alcohol: low daily intake (1-2 glasses per day) of alcohol has been associated with lower risk of CVD! However, high intake can damage the heart muscle and increase CVD risk.

24 Prevention of CVD: Primary vs. Secondary Prevention Primary prevention looks to reduce risk factors to prevent a disease before it starts – Ex’s: Secondary prevention focuses on treatment and early detection to prevent morbidity and mortality after a disease has started – Ex’s:

25 Treatment of CVD The decline in the cases of CVD-related deaths in North America is mainly due to medical advances such as – Heart transplants – Artificial hearts: now used as a bridge during surgery, possible permanent devices in the future – Implanted pacemakers

26 Treatment of CVD Coronary artery bypass surgery: replacing blocked/ narrow coronary arteries with healthy segments of other arteries

27 Treatment of CVD Angioplasty: enlarging an artery by using a balloon-type instrument

28 Treatment of CVD Drugs: target lowering blood pressure, reducing blood cholesterol, opening blood vessels, stabilizing heart rhythm Improvements in ambulance service and emergency room care Cardiac rehabilitation programs

29 Treatment of CVD Public education and motivation campaigns Screening Aspirin: decreases tendency of blood to clot. Side effects can be serious! Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training of many individuals

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