2 MotivationMotivation - the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met.Extrinsic motivation - type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person.
3 Instinct Approaches to Motivation Instincts - the biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animals.Instinct approach - approach to motivation that assumes people are governed by instincts similar to those of animals.
4 Drive Reduction Theory of Motivation Need - a requirement of some material (such as food or water) that is essential for survival of the organism.Drive - a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension.Drive-reduction theory - approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal.
5 Drive Reduction Theory of Motivation Primary drives - those drives that involve needs of the body such as hunger and thirst.Acquired (secondary) drives - those drives that are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval.Homeostasis - the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state.
7 Three Types of NeedsNeed for achievement (nAch) - a need that involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals, not only realistic ones but also challenging ones.Need for affiliation (nAff) - the need for friendly social interactions and relationships with others.Need for power (nPow) - the need to have control or influence over others.
8 Arousal Approach to Motivation Stimulus motive - a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity.Arousal theory - theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation.
9 Arousal Approach to Motivation Yerkes-Dodson law - law stating performance is related to arousal; moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too high.This effect varies with the difficulty of the task: easy tasks require a high-moderate level while more difficult tasks require a low-moderate level.Sensation seeker - someone who needs more arousal than the average person.
12 Incentive Approaches to Motivation Incentives - things that attract or lure people into action.Incentive approaches - theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties.Expectancy-value theories - incentive theories that assume the actions of humans cannot be predicted or fully understood without understanding the beliefs, values, and the importance that a person attaches to those beliefs and values at any given moment in time.
13 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization - according to Maslow, the point that is seldom reached at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential.Peak experiences- according to Maslow, times in a person’s life during which selfactualization is temporarily achieved.
15 Self-Determination Theory of Motivation Self-determination theory (SDT) - theory of human motivation in which the social context of an action has an effect on the type of motivation existing for the action.Intrinsic motivation - type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner.
16 Psychoactive DrugsPsychoactive drugs - drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory.Physical DependenceTolerance – more and more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect.Withdrawal - physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure, resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems.Psychological dependence - the feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being.
17 StimulantsStimulants - drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system.Amphetamines – drugs that are synthesized (made in labs) rather than found in nature.Cocaine – natural drug; produces euphoria, energy, power, and pleasure.
18 Stimulants Nicotine - active ingredient in tobacco. Caffeine - the stimulant found in coffee, tea, most sodas, chocolate, and even many over-the-counter drugs.
19 The harmful effects of nicotine are now well known, but many people continue to smoke or chew tobacco in spite of warnings such as this one cautioning pregnant women not to smoke. The nicotine patch this man is placing on his upper arm will deliver a controlled dose of nicotine throughout the time he is wearing it to prevent the physical craving for the drug. As he continues to move to smaller doses, his addiction will lessen and eventually disappear.
21 DepressantsDepressants - drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system.Barbituates – depressant drugs that have a sedative effect.Benzodiazepines - drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress.
22 AlcoholAlcohol - the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter.Often confused as a stimulant but actually a depressant on CNS.
23 NarcoticsNarcotics - a class of opium-related drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system’s natural receptor sites for endorphins.Opium - substance derived from the opium poppy from which all narcotic drugs are derived.Morphine - narcotic drug derived from opium, used to treat severe pain.Heroin - narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive.
24 HallucinogensPsychogenic drugs - drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication.Hallucinogens - drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception of reality.LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) - powerful synthetic hallucinogen.PCP - synthesized drug now used as an animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects.
25 HallucinogensMDMA (Ecstasy or X) - designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects.Stimulatory hallucinogenics – drugs that produce a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.Mescaline - natural hallucinogen derived from the peyote cactus buttons.Psilocybin - natural hallucinogen found in certain mushrooms.
26 MarijuanaMarijuana (pot or weed) - mild hallucinogen derived from the leaves and flowers of a particular type of hemp plant.This woman is preparing a cannabis (marijuana) cigarette. Cannabis is reported to relieve pain in cases of multiple sclerosis and chronic pain from nerve damage. Such use is controversial as cannabis is classified as an illegal drug in some countries.
28 Kinsey StudiesSeries of sexual behavior surveys in the late 1940s and early 1950sRevealed some highly controversial findings about the kinds of sexual behavior common among people in the United States, including:HomosexualityPremarital sexExtramarital sex
32 Janus ReportLarge-scale survey of sexual behavior in the United States in 1990s.Did not differ widely from those of Kinsey but looked at many more types of sexual behavior and factors related to sexual behavior, including:Sexual deviance - behavior that is unacceptable according to societal norms and expectations.
34 Sexual OrientationSexual orientation - a person’s sexual attraction preference for members of a particular sex.Heterosexual - person attracted to the opposite sex.Homosexual - person attracted to the same sex.Bisexual - person attracted to both men and women.
36 Elements of EmotionEmotion - the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feelings.Display rules - learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings.
44 Cognitive Arousal Theory of Emotion Cognitive arousal theory – theory of emotion in which both the physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experienced.
45 Schachter-Singer’s Cognitive Arousal Theory of Emotion
46 Schachter and Singer’s Study of Emotion Participants who were exposed to the “angry” man interpreted their physical arousal as angerParticipants who were exposed to the “happy” man interpreted their physical arousal as happiness.
47 Facial Feedback Hypothesis Facial feedback hypothesis - theory of emotion that assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion.
49 Cognitive-Mediational Theory Cognitive-mediational theory - theory of emotion in which a stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction.
53 Positive Psychology Movement Positive psychology movement - a viewpoint that recommends shifting the focus of psychology away from the negative aspects to a more positive focus on strengths, well-being, and the pursuit of happiness.