7 Introducing Sustainability into UK fire stations IntroductionSignificance of Fire Authority estate in contributing to U.K sustainability agendaSize of estate, condition of existing estate, new estateThe Fire Authority’s agenda to meet its responsibilityPolicy, targets, dates, timeframe, tools for putting policy to practiceOur experienceApplication of experience from NWFS
8 Sustainable Design Drivers Fire Authority - Output specificationBREEAMEPC ratingNational, Regional, Local Planning Authority10% LZC, at least 10% of total energy demand to be met by on site renewable energy or low carbon sourcesSpecific LZC preferences technologies (Wind turbine CHP PV’s Bio Mass)Industry Best Practice (now setting targets)Carbon Trust Ltd: better than or equal to 385 kwh/m2/p.a (fossil fuel) and 55 kwh/m2/p.a. (electricity)“The community fire stations and other associated new accommodation, other than temporary accommodation must aim for a target of ’excellent’ BREEAM, or equivalent, rating. A BREEAM rating which is less than ‘very good’ will not be acceptable to NWFRS.”North West Fire and Rescue Services PFI Project, Output Specification, Volume 3, FINAL VERSIONcreate an ‘Sustainability Charter’ for both internal use by the design team to confirm to all design team members the local, regional and national sustainability requirements (as projects covered several different county’s, so therefore had differing requirements at local level) AS WELL as to demonstrate to client compliance with key issues.Developed a list of sustainability requirements for the projects which in turn were transposed in employers requirements document:Was very beneficial in allowing the design team to be proactive to dealing with issues at early stage and in identifying solutions that gave the team an edge in the bidding process as sustainability is one of key areas identified by the clientbuild in the costs as part of the QS process, sustainable buildingsBREEAM Pre-assessment also carried out, this fed into the process well, as it covered a lot of the same ground as local sustainability requirements. This minimised the time required to generate the sustainability statement once it was completeRenewable energy study (traffic light and detailed feasability) were carried out and these fed into the client submissionsLondon RequirementsBREEAMAll Community Fire Stations and associated accommodation, other than temporary accommodation, must aim to achieve an ’excellent’ BREEAM Generic 2008 standard, unless site or planning constraints preclude this.RenewablesA minimum of 10% of predicted energy requirements from decentralised and renewable or low-carbon sources (some may require up to 20%)Renewable Energy 'appraisal' with following criteria: acceptability of the location and scale, visual impact, character and sensitivity of landscape.Other relatedThe design shall ensure the energy performance of the Community Fire Station is better than or equal to 385 kwh/m2/p.a (fossil fuel) and 55 kwh/m2/p.a. (electricity) which is the energy performance indicator for Community Fire Stations as advised by the Carbon Trust Ltd.
9 Design to Meet the LZC Challenge Building designOptimum levels of thermal insulation.U-values better than minimum design limits included in Part L.Self closing devices on external doors.LZC Technology choiceAero-thermal heat pumpsfull variable refrigerant volume (VRV) system combining the benefits of the Aero-thermal heat pump with ceiling mounted fan coils.Variable Speed Drives (VSDs)Heating, ventilation and coolingBuilding Energy Management System (BEMS)EC/DC fan motors where practicalVentilation heat recovery unitsNorth West 10% LZCNorth West; 10% Unless this can be shown as prohibitively costly; only raised in Merseyside, 7 of the sixteen stations. Design Team choose to applty 10% target across all sites.Full Feasibility and costing concluded;The outline planning consents issued by Sefton Borough Council for Bootle & Netherton and Southport sites include conditions which require at least 10% of predicated energy requirements to be provided from on site renewable energy sources, unless otherwise agreed in writing by the Local Planning Authority.We propose to implement the 10% renewable energy contribution at all sites, not just those where required by local planning conditions. This enables NWFRS to meet their aspiration for at least 10% of total energy demand to be met by on site renewable energy or low carbon sources and to achieve the maximum BREEAM credits for Ene5 - Low or zero carbon technologies.We will be providing heating to all of the Community Fire Stations using aerothermal heat pumps. We believe they provide the optimum solution to the renewable energy strategy, providing a highly efficient heating system using thermal energy extracted from the surrounding air.We are no longer proposing to include solar thermal energy for a number of reasons. Following consultation with the various planning authorities during the detailed design process the visual aspect of the solar thermal system was not well received. The panels were to be a visual demonstration of the sustainable features of the buildings to visitors and passing members of the public and to hide the panels away would not achieve this aim.Additionally, the cost of providing the panels was considerable and our calculations demonstrated that the renewable contribution to the buildings thermal energy was approximately 2% and thus concluded that this investment was not beneficial. We now propose to provide the domestic hot water generation via a highly efficient, condensing gas fire fired water heater.We have developed our renewable energy strategy within the building and are proposing to provide heating via a full variable refrigerant volume (VRV) system combining the benefits of the aerothermal heat pump with ceiling mounted fan coils. The fan coils provide a very flexible and controllable solution to the heating within rooms and have the added benefit of being able to provide cooling too. Being ceiling mounted they do not protrude into the rooms or corridors of the stations, providing a more robust solution and reducing any risks to fire fighters safety when responding to call outs.Plant equipmentWe will provide high efficiency plant, for example aerothermal heat pumps and low energy ventilation system design.Variable Speed Drives (VSDs) will be installed which contribute to energy efficiency ensuring the plant can accurately match the required load. VSDs provide additional benefits during the commissioning period as greater control is provided to ensure the required load can be achieved without the need to use dampers and valves to take excess pressure out of the systems meaning fans and pumps are not working as hard as they otherwise would be.- Appropriate sizing- Balance between vent and acoustics
10 Design to Meet the LZC Challenge Lightinghigh frequency control gearDaylight and occupancy sensingExternal lighting daylight and time control.Control equipmentflexible user controls with set-back functiontime scheduling functionsTime and occupancy based controlsEnergy MonitoringBEMSSet, monitor, and report against targets for energy useEnergy efficient design featuresHeating, ventilation and coolingThe heating system will be optimised by means of employing the Building Energy Management System (BEMS) system to learn from itself and optimise the system start times to achieve the desired internal conditions at the times required without using extended pre-heat periods.We will use EC/DC fan motors where practical, for example, the fan coil unit motors in areas to be comfort cooled.We will provide ventilation heat recovery units where supply air is required, in areas that do not have access to facades enabling natural ventilation, or in areas such as the gym where mechanical ventilation is provided to ensure good indoor air quality.LightingWe will use high frequency control gear for luminaries, including using high efficacy lamps.Daylight and occupancy sensing will be in all occupied rooms.Daylight and time control mechanisms will be provided to control the external lighting system.Control equipmentWe will provide flexible user controls with set-back function to avoid users accidentally and / or permanently adjusting set points.The controls system will include time scheduling functions to ensure plant only operates when required.Time and occupancy based controls will be provided for the ventilation systems to ensure the systems do not run when not required.Building designOptimum levels of thermal insulation for the building, plant and distribution systems.Maximised u-values for walls, floor and roof, e.g. by using constructions that achieve u-values better than minimum design limits included in Part L.Self closing devices on external doors.Energy MonitoringDuring the operation of the community fire stations, we will use the BEMS to maintain control over energy consumption by monitoring the performance of the engineering systems and by recording climatic data.The BEMS will be used to identify if internal temperatures are in excess of their minimum settings and therefore are using too much heating energy. Similarly, the BEMS will also highlight if reduced energy consumption has been achieved at the expense of thermal comfort.The BEMS will have the capability for remote monitoring and control by the Fire Authorities and will be compatible with their existing control system. It also includes a simple graphic interface to allow operation of the system without using a complex menu.We will set, monitor, and report against targets for energy, use throughout the construction process and establish energy consumption targets for the operation of the stations. Sub metering for the building will allow NWFRS to monitor and review energy consumption, establishing practices to minimise long term energy consumption.
11 BREEAM Rating Targets North West New ‘Fire Stations’ criteria Very Good rating minimum across all sites.Excellent rating at three sites (one for each authority)( Other fire PFI’s requiring excellent across all sites, looking for Outstanding as ‘added value’)New ‘Fire Stations’ criteriaEVIDENCEThe BREEAM process may require additional drawings, letters and specification amendments to that of a typical design.A number of specialist consultants will need to be engaged eg baseline studies, ecologist for the achievement of credit.Of note, Local Authority or Regional Authority (in this case London Plan – GLA) sustainability policy requirements and documentation requirements may vary to that required by BRE.TIMINGStart early but do not get dragged down by detail.Identify clear responsibilities from the outset.ACTION PLANSDesignation of the achievement of credits to design team members.Simplify BREEAM compliance requirements.Project team agree to actions at meeting.Relevant throughout BREEAM Assessment process.Ensure that minimum standards for EXCELLENT rating are met.
12 Key BREEAM Impacts Consultation Ecology and Land Use - Bio Diversity - best use of land - amenity areas - Green roofs – BlackburnMaterialsLCARobustSuppliersSite waste management plan(Green Guide to Materials)To demonstrate the use of sustainable materials for each of the Community Fire Stations our proposals address:- Material selection process- Source of each selected material- Use of carbon intensive materialsSite waste management.Various table form pdf – attach pdf
13 Additional to BREEAM and % LZC Fire Authority requirementsElectric car charging points (NWFS)Cycle requirements (NW)Local Authority Sustainability statements (20% new target)Energy statementsTravel PlanCycle schemesInclusion of habitat developmentGreen Roof (Blackburn)FloodEcologyFire Authority requirementsElectric car charging points (NWFS)Cycle requirements (NW)Local Authority Sustainability statements; Merseyside 1 checklist to be completed, 3 decision at planning.Energy statements; Merseyside 4Travel Plan; Merseyside 4Cycle schemesInclusion of habitat developementGreen Roof (LFS) (Blackburn)FloodEcology
14 Balancing the Challenges Conflicts can arise between requirements1. Balance between natural ventilations & acoustics noisy city centre sites air quality- noise- combination of open-able Windows & mechanical ventilation2. Material Choices ease of maintenance verses technology choice examplesCost and meeting targets!INCORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY INTO THE COST ESTIMATESFocus on easy wins and credits that provide the greatest return (value engineering).Achieving an EXCELLENT rating will increase the overall capital cost but there are long term environmental, economical and social returns.Classification of LZC, what counts in the contribution %Appropriate sizingBalance between vent and acousticsEase of maintenance v’s technology choice, landscapingSpace conflict between green roof and solar panel array for Lnd, biomass and space for storage, site access and vehicle priority
15 6. Pedestrian / Cycle access egress 3. Space conflicts bio diverse roof / photovoltaic- competition for roof space4. Bio mass boilers- space for storage- NW air sourced heat pumps5. Affordability- separate issue but potentially the greener you are the more experience the scheme can be.6. Pedestrian / Cycle access egress
16 A community fire station for the 21st century Closing statementIt is always a challenge but….you can do itit is affordableit doesn’t affect design qualitya few before after’sA community fire station for the 21st century
17 Southport Fire Station ExistingProposedSouthport Fire StationWorkington Fire StationBlackburn Fire Station