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COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Sole Proprietorships A sole proprietorship is an unincorporated business owned by one person. Sole proprietorships are easy and inexpensive to create and operate. Earnings are reported on the owner’s personal tax returns.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. Corporations Corporations offer limited liability – usually the managers’ and investors’ personal property is not at risk. Corporate stock can be bought and sold, making investments easy to get. Corporations involve a lot of expense and effort to create and operate.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. Close Corporations “Close corporation” and “closely held corporation” refer to a corporation whose stock is not publicly traded on a stock exchange. Common provisions of close corporations: – Protection of Minority Shareholders – Transfer Restrictions – Flexibility – Dispute Resolution
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. “S” Corporations Shareholders of S corps have the best of all worlds: the limited liability of a corporation and the tax status of a partnership. The disadvantages of an S corp are: – There can only be one class of stocks. – There can be no more than 75 shareholders. – Shareholders cannot be partnerships or other corporations. – Shareholders must be U.S. citizens or residents.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. Limited Liability Companies An LLC offers the limited liability of a corporation and the tax status of a partnership, without the disadvantages of an S corporation. The LLC is popular because it has: – Limited Liability, Favorable Tax Status, Duration, Management, Flexibility The biggest disadvantage with LLC is the legal uncertainty involved since it is a fairly new type of business. State laws vary, and case precedents are few.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. General Partnership A partnership is an unincorporated association of two or more co-owners who carry on a business for profit. Each co-owner is a general partner. Unless otherwise agreed, partners share profits, losses and management equally. Partnerships are easy to form (sometimes it happens unintentionally!) Partners can be held personally liable for the partnership actions and debts.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. Dissociation Dissociation occurs if a partner quits. When one or more partners dissociate, the partnership can either buy out the departing partner(s) and continue in business or wind up the business and terminate the partnership. A partner always has the power to leave a partnership but may not have the right.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. Partnership Pros & Cons Advantages: – They don’t pay taxes – They are easy to form. – Partners help with the work and financing. Disadvantages: – Each partner is liable personally. – Funding may be difficult (can’t sell shares). – Management may be difficult. – Transferability is limited.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) Partners in an LLP are not personally liable for debts of the partnership (whether arising from contract or tort). An LLP is not a taxable entity and it has the right to choose its duration.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. Limited Partnerships Have general (active management) and limited (money-only) partners. In a limited partnership, only the general partners are personally liable. In a limited liability limited partnership, the general partner is not personally liable for the debts of the partnership. Formation of limited partnerships require a filed certificate of limited partnership.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. Professional Corporations Most states let professional incorporate. In many states, PCs provide more liability protection than a partnership. The corporation may be liable for an individual member’s mistakes, but the innocent professionals are not at risk.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. Joint Venture A joint venture is a partnership for a limited purpose. Nonprofit enterprises do not qualify as a joint venture.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. Other Forms of Organization A business trust is an unincorporated association run by trustees for the benefit of investors (who are called “beneficiaries”). Cooperatives are groups of individuals or businesses that join together to gain the advantages of volume purchases or sales.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. Franchises Are not actually a separate form of business – they can take almost any one of the ones discussed already. – Franchising is a popular method of starting a business that is a compromise between employment and starting your own business. – Franchisees have freedom to make many choices, but are limited in other ways.
COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. “No one form of organization is right for every business. The proper choice depends upon factors such as sources of financing, tax issues, liability concerns, and the entrepreneur’s goals.”
The Entrepreneur’s Options Chapter 19. Introduction Entrepreneurs wishing to start a new business must be aware of advantages and disadvantages of various.
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© 2004 John S. Herbrand, Esq. LEGAL ENTITIES FOR CONDUCTING BUSINESS JOHN S. HERBRAND, Esq. ONE CHASE SQUARE SUITE 1900 ROCHESTER, NEW YORK TEL:
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