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Earth’s Materials.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth’s Materials."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth’s Materials

2 Minerals On the periodic table, of the first 92 elements: 90 are found in the Earth The crust is the outermost layer of Earth, and includes all continental material and materials that form the ocean bottom. Extends 10km beneath the continents

3 Major Elements in the Earth’s crust
Percent ( by mass) Oxygen 46.6% Silicon 27.7% Aluminum 8.1% Iron 5.0% Calcium 3.6% Sodium 2.8% Potassium 2.6% Magnesium 2.1% All others 1.5%

4 What’s a mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring element of compound that is inorganic, solid, and has a crystalline structure Inorganic means that minerals are materials that are not produced by living organisms The composition of minerals are indicated by their chemical formula Example: Fluorite= CaF2

5 Physical Properties A mineral has a particular chemical composition, although can sometimes vary due to small impurities Example: Ruby vs. Sapphire

6 Example Ruby vs. Sapphire
Both contain corundum, but Ruby has more chromium then Sapphire

7 Atom Arrangement Some properties are controlled by orderly arrangement of atoms in a mineral’s structure This pattern is what makes a mineral crystalline The arrangement of atoms and the bonds between them can reflect the way a mineral breaks, how hard it is, and what type of crystal shape

8 How minerals break Cleavage: the ability of a mineral break along plans that cut across relatively weak chemical bonds, a smooth, flat surface. Fracture: an irregular break

9 Hardness Bonds connecting atoms in materials often have different strengths When your scratch a mineral with another mineral the scratch forms as bonds in the material are broken.

10 Mohs Scale of Hardness Most to Least Talc Gypsum Calcite Fluorite
Apatite Feldspar Quartz Topaz Corundum Diamond

11 Luster and Streak The way a mineral reflects light is known as luster
Metallic Nonmetallic The color of a mineral in powdered form is called streak The streak may be the same color as the mineral


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