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HR – Employee Testing & Selection

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1 HR – Employee Testing & Selection
The other side of the table! Tehzeeb Sakina Amir HRM-session 6 Spring 2011-MBA

2 Main contents Developing & using application forms
Basic Testing Concepts Interviewing

3 Developing and Using Application Forms
Purpose Judgments on basis of education & experience Draw conclusions about applicant’s progress and growth Draw tentative conclusions about applicant’s stability based on previous work records Use the data in the application and predict the success possibility of the applicant on the job

4 Developing and Using Application Forms
Types Different forms for different posts Must provide information on prior job assignment, skills, achievements, and end with acknowledgment Beware of Equal Employment laws while developing form It should be concise yet comprehensive

5 Testing

6 Basic Testing Concepts
A test is a sample of a person’s behavior A test must be reliable and valid As job demand increases employers tend to rely more on testing procedures For all level of employees To find good employees and also to screen out bad ones Test results often followed by interviews

7 Basic Testing Concepts
Reliability Consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with the same test or with alternate forms of the same test. Forms to measure reliability Test-retest reliability Equivalent form reliability Internal consistency Validity The accuracy with which a test measures what it intends to measure Criterion Validity - based on showing that scores on the test (predictors) are related to job performance (criterion) Content Validity – that contains a fair sample of the tasks and skills actually needed for the job in question.

8 Validation process criterion validity
Step 1 - Analyze the job (JDs become predictors & define success on the job) Step 2 - Choose the Test Step 3 - Administer the Test Concurrent validation Predictive validation Step 4 - Relate test scores and Criteria Step 5 - Cross validate & Revalidate

9 Validation process Content validity
Content validity emphasize judgment Start with JA to identify work behavior required Combine several samples of those behaviors into a test

10 Testing Program Guidelines
Use tests as supplements Validate the tests Monitor testing/selection program Keep accurate records Use a certified psychologist Manage test conditions Revalidate periodically

11 Test taker’s rights and Test Security
Test takers’ rights to privacy and information under APA: Confidentiality of test scores Informed consent Only qualified people interpret the results Fairness of the test Respect & concern for others Welfare / Avoiding harm Obsolete tests Ethical violations

12 Some tests MMPI – personality test Wonderlic Personnel Test
Numerical ability test Reading comprehension test Clerical checks In-basket technique Computerized and Online testing Quick pre-screening

13 Types of Tests Tests of Cognitive Abilities
Tests of motor & physical abilities Personality & Interests Tests Achievement Tests

14 Types of Tests Tests of Cognitive Abilities
Intelligence Tests (IQ tests – multiple abilities: memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, numerical ability) Specific Cognitive Abilities – aptitude tests like Test of Mechanical Comprehension Tests of Motor & Physical Abilities Finger dexterity, manual dexterity, reaction time tests. The Crawford Small Parts Dexterity Test, Stromberg Dexterity Test, Purdue Peg Board Test

15 Personality Tests Personality & Interest Test – measure traits like stability, introversion, motivation etc. Projective tests are used – Rorschach, TAT, Make-a-Picture-Story, Forer Structured Sentence Completion Test The ‘Big Five’ (Extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience Effectiveness of personality tests Interest Inventories – a personal development & selection device that compares the person’s current interests with those now in various occupations to determine the preferred occupation for the individual

16 Achievement Tests Measure to what extent learning has taken place – academic tests, job knowledge tests etc Achievement tests also measure individual abilities for e.g. typing test

17 Work Samples & Simulations
Actual job tasks used in testing applicants’ performance – Work Samples Work Sampling Technique – a testing method based on measuring performance on actual basic job tasks Advantages: Actual job tasks – no faking Fair procedures No invasion in privacy Better validity Procedure – selection of task, observer monitors performance, indicates how well person has performed

18 Management Assessment Centers
A simulation in which management candidates are asked to perform realistic tasks in hypothetical situations and are scored on their performance. It involves testing and the use of management games; Includes ‘The in-basket’ ‘Leaderless group discussion’ Management games Individual presentations Objective tests The interview Expensive, time consuming but result is substantial contribution to future success or failure

19 Video-based Situational Testing
Situational Test – a test that require examinees to respond to situations representative of the job. Video-based presents online or PC based video scenarios, each followed by MCQs

20 The Miniature Job Training & Evaluation
Miniature Job training & evaluation – training candidates to perform several of the job tasks and then evaluating the candidates performance prior to hire. Based on the concept, that if the person can learn & perform the sample task, will be able to learn & perform the actual job itself Pros & Cons – high content validity but comes with a high price

21 Other Selection Tools Background Investigations & reference checking
Pre-employment information services Honesty testing Graphology Substance abuse testing

22 Background investigations
Background investigations & reference checking 87% claim they check references Aims is to verify factual information provided by the applicant Uncover any damaging information Ways to check – phone call, written requests, social networking sites Inexpensive & straightforward way to verify information provided Privacy & legal issues Supervisors’ reluctance Employer guidelines Making checks more useful…..

23 The Polygraph & Honesty Testing
Polygraph (lie-detector) for honesty testing Law restricts its usage Accuracy questions….inhibits use of electrical or mechanical devices usage Investigation Agencies can continue using it. Conditions to use: The employer must show that it suffered an economic loss or injury Must show employee in question has access to the property Must have reasonable suspicion Details of the investigation & questions must be told before administering the test Paper-pencil honesty tests – measure attitudes, ethics, morals, etc. found valid

24 Graphology Handwriting analysis to determine writer’s basic personality traits – projective tests. Validity is highly suspicious! Analyze handwriting and discover needs, desires, psychological makeup

25 Physical Exams Medical exams. Reasons can be:
Applicant meets the physical requirement of the job Check any medical limitations Record and baseline of applicant’s general health Reduce absenteeism & accident rate. Detect communicable diseases

26 Substance Abuse Screening
Conduct drug screening Test for to-be-hired and current employees too When there is a reason – absenteeism, accident, chronic late coming No drug test is fool-proof – ethical & legal issues If test comes positive – do not hire / fire existing employee

27 Interviewing the most important screening tool
Types Factors Guidelines

28 Selection Interview A Selection Interview is designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicant’s oral responses to oral inquiries. The most widely used indispensable management selection tool Use in different settings – selection, appraisal, exit etc

29 Types of Interviews Structured versus Unstructured Interviews
Structured interviews – defined format, set of questions, list & rate possible answers More reliable and valid – same set of questions to all applicants Less trained interviewers can do the job Reduces subjectivity Do not provide opportunity to pursue points of interest Unstructured interviews – no set format, open end questions, pursue points of interest as they progress. Not a general conversation

30 Types of Interviews Interview Content (Types of Questions)
Situational Interview – a series of job related questions that focus on how the candidate would behave in a given situation “suppose you were faced with…what would you do?’ Behavioral Interview – a series of job-related questions that focus on how the candidate reacted to actual situations in the past “Can you think of a time when…..what did you do?” Both can produce a lot of tension!!

31 Types of Interviews Interview Content (Types of Questions)
Job-related interview – a series of job related questions that focus on relevant past job related behavior No hypothetical or actual situations but job-related questions Stress Interview – an interview in which the applicant is made uncomfortable by a series of often rude questions. It helps identify hyper sensitive applicants and those with low or high stress tolerance level Asking puzzle questions

32 Administering the Interview
Different ways: One-on-one, panel interviews Sequentially or all at once Computerized or personally Most interviews are one-on-one and sequential Unstructured sequential interview Structured sequential interview

33 Administering the Interview
Panel Interview – board interview – interview conducted by a team of interviewers (2-3), who interview each candidate & then combine their ratings. Ask follow-up questions, more meaningful responses Quick way – all at once rather than sequential Structured panel interview are more valid Mass Interview – a panel interviews several candidates simultaneously.

34 Administering the Interview
Phone & Video Interviews – more accurate, spontaneous, more focused responses Video conference interviews Geographically dispersed candidates Computerized Interviews – an interview in which candidate’s oral and/or computerized replies are obtained through computer in response to computerized oral, visual or written questions Series of questions/situations followed by MCQs Quick, responses are more honest Impersonal feeling can come & effect the interviewee

35 Factors effecting the Interviews
First Impression – Snap judgments Misunderstanding the job Candidate-Order (Contrast) error and Pressure to Hire Non verbal behavior & Impression Management Effect of personal characteristics: attractiveness, gender, background etc Interviewer Behavior

36 Designing effective interviews
The Structured Situational Interview – Step 1 – Job Analysis Step 2 – Rate the job’s main duties Create Interview Questions Create Benchmark answers Appoint Interview Panel & Conduct interview

37 Conducting effective interviews
Put people at ease and not off-guard Mostly unstructured interviews are used with some guidelines: Base questions on actual job duties Use job knowledge, situational or behavioral questions to evaluate responses Train interviewers Use same questions with all candidates Use descriptive rating scale (excellent, good, fair, poor) Use multiple interviewers Use a standardized interview form Control the interview Take brief notes during interview to avoid ‘the recency effect’

38 Prepare for the interview
Plan interview in a separate room with minimum interruptions/intrusions Prior to interview, review CVs, take notes Don’t go unprepared…waste of time & effort Job knowledge, skills and abilities required by the job should be very clear Establish rapport.. put them at ease Ask questions Close the interview Review the interview

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