Presentation on theme: "“the war to end all wars”"— Presentation transcript:
1 “the war to end all wars” Ending the Great War“the war to end all wars”
2 The importance of 1917Russian leader Czar Nicholas II abdicated and a temporary gov’t was formed. This bolshevik gov’t signed a peace treaty with Germany. German troops could now move away from the Eastern Front and focus on the Western Front.Nick >>>>>>
3 This was the beginning of a communist Russia that would go until 1991
4 1917 also saw the entrance of the Americans into the war 1917 also saw the entrance of the Americans into the war. During this year, neutral passenger ship the Lusitania was sunk by German U –boats. On April 2, USA declared war on Germany.
5 Germany’s defeatEven though troops were free to focus on the west, the German army was war-weary and by the time they reached France they had run out of men, food, supplies and motivation.German’s fatigue was compounded by the influenza epidemic of It hit Europeans particularly hard.
6 November 11, 1918An armistice, or cease-fire, was finally called at the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month.A major part of the victory for the Allies was Canada’s 100 Days, major successful offensives led by Canadians.Eventually, the German Kaiser fled to Holland and the Central Powers collapsed – the war was finally over, in time for Christmas.
8 What differences do you see compared to the map of 1914? Europe after the War (1920)What differences do you see compared to the map of 1914?
9 Paris Peace Conference 1919 Peace TalksAfter the signing of the armistice, the Allies (Britain, France, Italy, USA) and Germany met in Paris to work out the details of peace.David Lloyd George,Vittorio Orlando,Georges Clemenceau,Woodrow WilsonParis Peace Conference 1919
10 Treaty of VersaillesThis was the official peace document signed by all the major players. Canada was granted its own signature on the document, rather than being included under Britain’s.
11 Germany must pay…..The conditions of the Treaty were particularly harsh for Germany, as France and Belgium were bitter about the destruction their countries experienced.Germany had to:Sign a “guilt clause” accepting full responsibility for the warPay $30 billion in reparationsReduce and divide its territoryRestrict its army to 100,000 men and eliminate its navy and air force.What do you think the consequences of these harsh terms are? How do you think this will effect Germany in future years? How will Germany pay for these reparations?
12 Never again….The Treaty of Versailles also established the League of Nations. This was an organization of nations throughout the world for the purpose of collective security.The idea was that if one country in the League was attacked, the other nations would come to its aid. The goal was to prevent a world war from ever happening again.We know WWII occurred so where did the League go wrong?
13 The League’s FlawsWhile the idea of a League of Nations was the basis for the current United Nations, it had too many flaws to be effective:1. it had no military force to use against aggressor nations2. USA refused to join (even though it was an American idea)3. most nations only half-heartedly agreed to the idea in the first place. Boo-urns!
15 Significance for Canada? Not only did Canada get its own signature on the Treaty of Versailles, it was granted its own seat at the League of Nations!This was an important international recognition of Canada as its own country, not just a colony of Britain.Prime Minister Borden
16 Canada’s coming of age? Was WWI positive or negative for Canada? + growth in Cdn industry and economy+ courageous reputation+ women’s right to vote+ increased recognition as independent country
17 Negatives…. - 60,000 Cdn deaths, 170,000 injuries - divided and bitter feelings around conscription- internment of enemy aliens- war debt- income tax?