2 1.1 Earth’s Interior Key Concepts How have geologists learned about Earth’s inner structure?Geologists use two main types of evidence:Direct evidence – Look at rocksIndirect evidence – Seismic waves
3 1.1 Earth’s Interior Key Concepts What are the characteristics of Earth’sCrust – The layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer surface.Mantle – The layer of hot, solid material between earth’s crust and core.Core – The center of the planet Earth.
4 1.1 Earth’s Interior Key Terms Basalt – A dark, dense, igneous rock with fine texture, found in ocean crust.Granite – A usually light-colored igneous rock that is found in continent crust.Lithosphere – A ridged layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust.Asthenosphere – The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats.
5 1.1 Earth’s Interior Key Terms Outer core – A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth.Inner core – A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the Earth.
6 1.1 Earth’s Interior Key Terms Seismic waves – Vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake.Pressure – The force exerted on a surface divided by the area over which the force is exerted.
7 1.1 Earth’s Interior A Journey to the Center of Earth Three main layers are the crust, the mantle, and the coreTemperature – At the start the temperature is cool until approximately 20 meters. Then it begins to grow warmer. For each 40 meters the temperature rises 1* Celsius.Pressure - Because of the weight of the rock above the pressure increases the deeper you go.
8 1.1 Earth’s InteriorThe CRUST – This is the Earth’s outer skin. The ocean crust is thinner, denser, dark Mostly Basalt The continent crust is thicker, lighter, less dense Mostly Granite
9 1.1 Earth’s InteriorThe MANTLE – About 40 Kilometers beneath the surface. Approximately 3,000 kilometers thick This layers is very hot and solid The mantle had TWO (2) main layers 1-Lithosphere = upper mantle, similar to the crust. 2-Asthenosphere = hotter increase pressure less rigid, like road tar can bend like plastic. 3-Lower mantle = solid all the way to the core,
10 1.1 Earth’s InteriorThe CORE Is mostly iron and nickel It has two layers Outer core – a layer of molten liquid rock (the movement of this liquid outer core layer is what gives earth a magnetic field) Inner core – a dense ball of solid metal
11 Chapter One Section 2 Convection & the Mantle Inside EarthChapter OneSection 2 Convection & the Mantle
12 1.2 Convection and the Mantle Key Concepts How is heat transferred?What causes convection currents?What causes convection currents in Earth’s mantle?
13 1.2 Convection and the Mantle Key Terms RadiationConductionConvectionDensityConvection currents
14 1.2 Convection and the Mantle Types of Heat Transfer RadiationConductionConvection
16 1.3 Drifting Continents Key Concepts What was Alfred Wegener’s hypothesis about the continents?What evidence supported Wegener’s hypothesis?Why was Wegener’s hypothesis rejected by most scientists of his day?
25 1.4 Sea-floor spreading Sea-floor spreading The sea floor spreads apart along both sides of the mid-ocean ridge.
26 1.4 Sea-floor spreading Evidence for Sea-floor spreading Evidence from molten materialsEvidence from magnetic stripesEvidence from drilling samples
27 1.4 Sea-floor spreading Subduction at Trenches Process where ocean floor sinks beneath a deep ocean trench.
28 Chapter One Section 5 Theory of Plate Tectonics Inside EarthChapter OneSection 5 Theory of Plate Tectonics
29 1.5 Theory of Plate Tectonics Key Concepts What is the theory of plate tectonics?What are the three types of plate boundaries?
30 1.5 Theory of Plate Tectonics Key Terms Plate –A section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenpsphere. Carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust.Scientific theory- A well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.Plate tectonics- The theory that pieces of Earth’s lithosphere are in constant motion driven by convection currents in the mantle.
31 1.5 Theory of Plate Tectonics Key Terms Fault – A break in Earth’s crust where masses of rock slip past each other.Rift valley – A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart.
32 1.5 Theory of Plate Tectonics Key Terms Divergent boundaryConvergent boundaryTransform boundary
33 1.5 Theory of Plate Tectonics Divergent Boundaries Divergent boundaries Two plates move apart.
34 1.5 Theory of Plate Tectonics Convergent Boundaries Convergent boundary – plates move into each other. There are two possible outcomes.They rise up into mountains when both plates are equal in density. Himalayan mountains.Or the heavier denser plate (ocean) slides under the lighter (continent) less dense plate
35 1.5 Theory of Plate Tectonics Transform Boundaries Transform boundary – slide past each other in opposite directions. They stay on the same level. No rise or sinking.