Session Objectives At the end of the session the participants will be able to: Explain the concept of accountability Explain reasons why accountability is important Analyse approaches of accountability Create linkages between accountability and public service delivery
Session Outline Meaning of Accountability and social accountability Accountability and obligation Importance of accountability Approaches of accountability Linkages accountability and public service delivery Case on accountability/responsiveness
Accountability Is a key component of governance Is being answerable for what is done Can be defined as the obligation of power- holders to account for or take responsibility for their actions. Government organisations, administrators are accountable to citizens, users of public services and the law
Accountability and Obligation Every accountability relationship begins with an obligation. If there is no obligation, there is no accountability to enforce. When political candidates are elected to public office and government officials accept executive positions, – they are not supposed to have free reign to do as they wish. – Instead, they take on certain obligations when they step into their positions of power.
Kinds of obligation Political (people, constituents) Financial Managerial Administrative Ethical/ moral Performance( making progress towards goals)
Government Officials/power holders responsible Their conduct—they must obey the law and not abuse their powers. Their performance—they must serve the public interest in an efficient, effective and fair manner. All states have some form of mechanisms to promote or ensure accountability of public actors
Social Accountability Civic engagement in the process of making state accountable Ordinary citizens participate directly or indirectly in holding service providers to account Public officials are called on to inform stakeholders and to justify to them their behavior, actions and results.
Importance of Social Accountability Better governance Efficient public service delivery Engaging citizens Ensuring rights of WPE Empowering WPEs
Approaches Individual: ethical, personal obligation Institutional: political, administrative, legal Collective: civil society, informal group, community
How accountability improves public service delivery ? Individual (Service Provider) Institutiona l (Structure and system) Collective (Society, WPEs, CSOs) Collective (Society, WPEs, CSOs) Social Accountability Capacity building Empowerment, awareness, experience sharing Revisit, restructure Improved public service delivery
Accountability relationship - users Policy Makers Users Providers Voice Client power Service compact Indirect channel Direct channel Intermediary
Bridging mechanism of accountability Demand Side Citizen Demand Side Citizen Supply side State (Central and Local ) Supply side State (Central and Local ) Intermediary CSOs Media Private sector I/NGOs Political parties Civil society Intermediary CSOs Media Private sector I/NGOs Political parties Civil society
Features of Democratic Accountability Human Rights – existing covenants to which the GoN has agreed Relationships – politicians, civil servants, citizens – who is accountable to whom? Responsibility – are people ready to be held to account for something that the government has done? Power – the need for checks and balances in places where people exert power Participation – does this open up spaces for new actors and new roles? Transparency – the need for access to information to support accountability Rule of law – need for clear consequences of misconduct and/or negligence
The philosophy : SA The philosophy behind social accountability centers on the role of empowerment and information in enhancing government commitment and service delivery.
How Building social accountability through community mobilization, training, dialogue and collective actions. Social accountability engages social movements that demands accountability through mechanisms
The SA8000 ® standardSA8000 ® standard The SA8000 ® standardSA8000 ® standard It is one of the world’s first auditable social certification standards for decent workplaces, across all sectors(industry). It is based on conventions of the ILO, UN and national laws. The SA8000 ® standard spans industry and corporate codes to create a common language for measuring social compliance
SA8000 ® Elements Child Labor Forced and Compulsory Labor Health and Safety Freedom of Association and Right to Collective Bargaining Discrimination Disciplinary Practices: Treat all personnel with dignity and respect Working Hours ( 48 hrs/week) Remuneration (wages sufficient to meet basic needs ) Management Systems