Presentation on theme: "Reactions of Acids Neutralisation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reactions of Acids Neutralisation A neutral substance has a ph =7. It contains equal numbers of H+ and OH-Neutralisation is when we reduce the number of H+ ions in an acid or reduce the number of OH- ions in an alkali – so that they become neutral.
2 Neutralising Acids If we add a BASE to and acid we can neutralise it. There are 4 types of BASE:Metals, Metal oxides, Metal hydroxides (soluble metal hydroxides are – alkali’s) and Metal Carbonates.A new substance called a “salt” is always produced.
3 Naming Salts Acid Base Salt Hydrochloric Sodium hydroxide chloride The first part of the name comes from the base – it will be a metal name.The second part comes from the acid.Salts usually end in “ ide” or “ ateAcidBaseSaltHydrochloricSodiumhydroxidechlorideSulphuric acidCalciumHydroxidesulphate
4 Bases Metals Metal + Acid —>Salt + Hydrogen Example Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid —>Magnesium chloride ( salt) + Hydrogen
5 Metal oxides Metal oxide + Acid —> Salt + Water Example Magnesium oxide + Carbonic Acid —>Magnesium carbonate + Water(salt)
6 Metal hydroxide ( alkali) Metal hydroxide + Acid —>Salt + WaterExampleCalcium hydroxide + Nitric Acid —>Calcium nitrate + Water
7 Metal carbonate Metal carbonate + Acid —> Salt + Water + Carbon dioxideExampleSodium carbonate + Sulphuric Acid —>Sodium sulphate + Water + Carbon dioxide
8 Ionic EquationsStep 1.Write down normal balanced equation, remember to use valency to work out formula of compounds.Step 2Put in the charges of the ions in the ionic compounds in the equations – remember – covalent compounds e.g. Water don’t have ions!
9 Example of Ionic Equation Calcium oxide + Hydrochloric Acid —>Calcium chloride + WaterStep 1Ca O + H Cl —> Ca Cl2+ H2OStep 2Ca 2+ O 2- + H+ Cl- —> Ca 2+ (Cl-) H2O(l)
10 Spectator Ions These are ions which do not change during the reaction – they are exactly the same on the left and fight side of the arrow!ExampleH+ CL- + Na+ OH- —> Na+ Cl- + H2OThe Na+ and Cl- ions have not changed – they are the spectator ions in this reaction.
11 Making Insoluble Salts We can make an insoluble salt when we mix certain salt solutions.This is called Precipitation!Use p5 in Data booklet to check solubility of compounds!ExampleBarium nitrate(s) + Sodium sulphate(s)They swap partners- Barium sulphate(i) and Sodium nitrate(s) are formed. Barium sulphate is insoluble – it is a precipitate!
12 Volumetric Titrations This is when we work out the volume or concentration of an acid or alkali required for a neutralisation reaction.C1 V1 = C2 V2C1 = Concentration of AcidV1 = Volume of AcidC1 = Concentration of AlkaliV1 = Volume of Alkali
13 Examples!Calculate the concentration of acid required id 20 cm3 neutralises 20 cm3 of 2mol/l alkali.C1 V1 = C2 V2We are wanting to calculate C1C1 = C2 V2 / V1C1 = 2 x 0.02 / 0.02= 2 mol/l
14 Example 2What volume of alkali, with a concentration of 3 mol/l, is required to neutralise 50 cm3 of 2 mol/l acid?C1 V1 = C2 V2V2 = C1 V1 / C2= 2 x 0.05/ 3= 0.03 Litres