Presentation on theme: "AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY IMPACTS 13.1 & 12.3. How much do we know? We have explored about 5% of the earth’s global ocean and the world’s interconnected oceans."— Presentation transcript:
How much do we know? We have explored about 5% of the earth’s global ocean and the world’s interconnected oceans cover 71% of the planets surface. Research frontier: Scientific investigation of poorly understood marine and freshwater aquatic systems which could result in great ecological and economic benefits. Pew Oceans Commission recommended 4 fundamental reforms of law: Pass National Ocean Policy Act(protect, sustain, & restore) Double federal budget for ocean research. Base fisheries management on preserving aquatic ecosystems. Set up network of marine reserves to help protect fish breeding and nursery grounds.
Lakes and Ponds Eutrophication: an increase in the amount of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem, eventually causing plant and algae growth reducing the amount of oxygen available for organisms such as fish.
Wetlands Rivers Important because they act like filters. Florida Everglades once covered 8 million acres of South Florida but now covers less than 2 million acres. Many have been drained and filled and cleared for farms, residential, and commercial development. Coastal Wetlands (Estuaries) that exist in populated areas are used as places to dump waste. Runoff: wash nutrients and sediment from surrounding land into a river. These materials affect growth and health of organisms in river.
Coral Reefs: is habitat for ¼ of all marine animals. 27% of the worlds coral reefs are in danger. Overfishing, harvesting practices, Pollution farming and construction practices, (Eutrophication, sedimentation) Human contact, anchors, diseases Global Warming (raising temperatures) Solutions: WHEN SCUBA DIVING DON’T TOUCH!!!!! DON’T ANCHOR ON REEFS, USE MOORING BUOY SYSTEM
Extinction Threats From Habitat Loss and Degradation HIPPO is the acronym for habitat destruction and fragmentation, invasive species, population growth, pollution, and overharvesting. Summarize the main secondary factors leading to premature extinction One of the greatest eliminator is the deforestation of tropical forests, however, temperate biomes have been more affected more because of habitat loss and degradation. Temperate biomes are widespread all around the world for over 200 years. Today the shift turns to the tropical forests According to the Nature Conservatory, agriculture, commercial development, water development, outdoor recreation, livestock grazing, and pollution are the major habitat disturbance in the U.S.
HABITAT LOSS HABITAT DEGRADATION AND FRAGMENTATION INTRODUCING NONNATIVE SPECIES Basic and Secondary Causes OVERFISHING CLIMATE CHANGE PREDATOR AND PEST CONTROL POLLUTION COMMERCIAL HUNTING AND POACHING SALE OF EXOTIC PETS AND DECORATIVE PLANTS
Habitat Fragmentation Habitat Fragmentation: large area of habitat which been reduced to small, isolated patches or “habitat islands” Effect of habitat fragmentation: Predators Invasion Disease Caustrophic Events
Case Study: How Human Activities affect Bird Species? 70% of the world’s 9800 known bird species are declining 1/6 of the birds’ species are threaten with extinction’ habitat loss, and fragmentation Biggest threat to a bird’s species Habitat loss/ fragmentation Nonnative species Pet trade Drowned after being hooked on bait lines by fishing boats Obstacles between migratory routes Toxic (oil spills, pesticide, etc..)
What to Study? The Top 5 You will need to learn these 5 objectives for the exam: 1. Definition and steps of eutrophication 2. Problem and solution to protect the coral reefs 3. How HIPPO is use for threats and extinction for species 4. Basic and Secondary causes 5. Habitat fragmentation
PICS: http://thrivingoceans.org/wp- content/uploads/2011/02/ArtificialReef_mm7740_05.jpg http://thrivingoceans.org/wp- content/uploads/2011/02/ArtificialReef_mm7740_05.jpg http://www.pewtrusts.org/our_work_detail.aspx?id=130 http://www.deldot.gov/stormwater/images2/drain_full.jpg http://img6.travelblog.org/Photos/54661/245838/f/1970267-Scuba-Diving-the-Reef- 0.jpghttp://img6.travelblog.org/Photos/54661/245838/f/1970267-Scuba-Diving-the-Reef- 0.jpg Jr, G. T. (2005). Living in the Environment (Vol. 14).pg.231 http://www.azgfd.gov/w_c/images/clip_image002_010.gif ES: