Presentation on theme: "Are You Ready To Be A Parent?. Fertilization (Conception) Each life begins with 2 cells (XX or XY) Ovum (X) Sperm (X or Y) 1 egg is released from the."— Presentation transcript:
Fertilization (Conception) Each life begins with 2 cells (XX or XY) Ovum (X) Sperm (X or Y) 1 egg is released from the ovaries every 28 days. The ovum enters the fallopian tube to begin its journey to the uterus. If sperm is deposited in the vagina, while an egg is on the way to the uterus, fertilization can occur.
Fertilization Cont. Up to a half of billion sperm can be deposited in the vagina Only a few hundred live to make the 6 inch swim to the fallopian tube. Only 1 sperm can fertilize the egg Within seconds of fertilization, the surface of the egg changes so no more sperm can enter. At the moment of fertilization, the sex and genetic trait of the future person are set.
Pregnancy testing Most common sign of pregnancy is a missed period Menstruation ceases because progesterone levels remain high. This causes endometrium to remain thick and intact Pregnancy can be determined as soon as implantation has occurred. Embryo begins to produce a hormone called HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) HCG can be found in the blood of a pregnant woman a few days after implantation. One week after menstruation should have begun, HCG can be found in the woman’s urine.
Stages Of Fetal Development Zygote United egg and sperm Within 36 hours, the zygote is still traveling through the fallopian tube; it begins to divide (2 cells-4 cells-8cells) Continues until dozens of cells.
Zygote cont. Implantation – Process of attachment Within 4-5 days, zygote reaches uterus. Floats around for a few days. (Approximately 500 cells) No longer a solid mass of cells. Becomes a hollow sphere called a blastocyst. It begins to attach to wall of uterus After implantation occurs, the blastocyst is called an embryo.
Placenta The attachment that holds the embryo to the wall of the uterus develops into an organ into an organ called the placenta. The placenta acts as a filter between the embryo’s bloodstream and the mother’s bloodstream. *Blood of the embryo and mother do not mix* Many substances can pass through this filter (alcohol, drugs, smoke, and some organisms that cause disease)
Umbilical Cord 25 days after fertilization, a cord develops between the placenta and the embryo called the umbilical cord. This cord is the baby’s lifeline, containing blood vessels that carry nutrients and oxygen from the placenta to the embryo.
Amniotic Sac Developing embryo is enclosed in a bag of thin tissue called the Amniotic sac. The embryo floats within the sac in amniotic fluid. This fluid acts as a shock absorber, and keeps the embryo’s temperature constant.
Prenatal Care Pregnant women require extra calories (2200- 2400) per day Supplements (folic acid, calcium, protein, iron) Exercise to maintain a healthy heart, to allow it to meet the demands of developing fetus. Abstaining from alcohol, smoking, drugs (street and prescription) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – Mental retardation caused by alcohol, which damages the fetus’s brain development. 100% preventable
Prenatal Testing Certain disorders affecting the fetus can be detected before birth through testing. Amniocentesis – Small amount of amniotic fluid is removed from around the fetus and analyzed.
Prenatal testing Chorionic villus sampling – A small piece of chorion (part of the developing placenta) is removed for examination.
AlphaFetoProtein (AFP) An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test checks the level of AFP in a pregnant woman's blood. AFP is a substance made in the liver of an unborn baby. The amount of AFP in the blood of a pregnant woman can help see whether the baby may have such problems as spina bifida and anencephaly.
Prenatal testing Ultrasound – High frequency sound waves that bounce off the fetus. This is used to make a “picture” of the fetus. Ultrasounds can detect abnormal bone, muscle, and heart formation. Also shows the position, and if there is more than one. Also used to determine age.
Labor and Delivery 1 st Stage: Strong Contractions & Water Breaks Duration: 4-24 hours Strong contractions cause the cervix to dilate (widen) from 1 to 4 inches. Each contraction lasts 30-90 secs. Contractions begin several minutes apart, and then progress to seconds apart. Amniotic sac breaks, and the cervix softens to allow the fetus to pass through. (water breaks)
Labor & Delivery 2 nd Stage: Actual Birth (Delivery) Duration: 30 minutes to 2 hours Muscular wall of uterus begins a series of contractions that will push the fetus down the birth canal. Once baby is out, umbilical cord is clamped and cut. Nose and mouth are suctioned out. Removing mucus. Eye drops are put in to prevent infection Vitamin K is given to prevent excessive bleeding from the cut umbilical cord. Baby is examined within 1 minute of birth, and then again 5 minutes later. APGAR score is taken. Score is 0-2 1. heart rate 2. breathing 3. muscle tone 4. skin color 5. reactions A score of 10 means the baby came through the birthing process in best condition possible
Labor & Delivery 3 rd Stage: Delivery of Afterbirth (Placenta) Duration: The placenta is usually delivered within 15-30 minutes of the baby being born After baby is born, placenta separates from uterine wall and is passed through birth canal.
Labor and Delivery Types of delivery Cephalic – Head down position Breach – Buttocks/backside first Cesarean – surgical method
Complications Ectopic pregnancy – The blastocyst forms and becomes implanted in the fallopian tube or elsewhere in the abdomen. Results in the death of the embryo Surgery is necessary to remove the embryo, and to repair the damaged fallopian tube
Complications Miscarriage – Expulsion of a dead zygote, blastocyst, embryo, or fetus from the uterus. During 1 st trimester 15-20% of all pregnancies Caused by serious genetic defect Mothers illness or drug mother has taken No apparent reason
Complications Stillbirth – Birth of a dead, full-term fetus. Physical injury to the fetus
Complications Toxemia – Infection thorough out the body High blood pressure: Protein in the urine Swelling ( fluid retention ) Serious condition affecting Teenagers Over 40 Not receive prenatal care
Rh factors – Most people contain a certain group of proteins Rh negative – Lack these proteins / 15% of population Rh positive - Majority Mother’s blood develops antibodies that fight the baby’s red blood cells. Baby will need a transfusion at birth Mother receives injections to prevent antibodies