Campeche Commitment to the Western Climate Initiative in Request for Partner Status 1.Complete its green house gas (GHG) emissions inventory in the near future. 2.Upon completion of the inventory, develop a reduction target for GHG emission sources for which it has regulatory oversight. 3.Concurrently, develop a plan that outlines the actions necessary to meet the established target, understanding that its participation in the WCI cap-and-trade program can be a substantial element of the action plan.
Campeche Background Information Country: Mexico Capital: San Francisco de Campeche Municipalities: 11 Largest City:San Francisco de Campeche Admission: April 29, 1863 Order:25th Governor:Fernando Ortega Bernés (PRI) Population: 754,730 Economic Activities in Campeche Main economic activity sectorsPercentage contribution to state GDP (2006) Mining (including Oil and Gas Extraction by Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX)) 52.8 Communal, social and personal services20.1 Trade, restaurants and hotels7.5 Finance, insurance, real estate and rentals5.6 Transport, storage and communications4.7 Construction4.2 Agriculture, forestry and fishing2.4 Electricity, gas and water1.7 Manufacturing industry (products include food, beverages and tobacco) 1.5 Banking0.3 Total100 SOURCE: INEGI. System of National Accounts of Mexico. Gross Domestic Product by State State Participation in GNP (2006)
Historic Fortified Town of Campeche, Campeche Date of Inscription: 1999 Criteria: (ii)(iv) Property : 181.0000 ha State of Campeche N19 50 47 W90 32 14 Ref: 895 Campeche is a typical example of a harbour town from the Spanish colonial period in the New World. The historic centre has kept its outer walls and system of fortifications, designed to defend this Caribbean port against attacks from the sea. Criterion (iv): The fortifications system of Campeche, an eminent example of the military architecture of the 17th and 18th centuries, is part of an overall defensive system set up by the Spanish to protect the ports on the Caribbean Sea from pirate attacks. United Nations World Heritage List Ancient Maya City of Calakmul, Campeche Date of Inscription: 2002 Criteria: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv) Property : 3000.0000 ha Buffer zone: 147195.0000 ha Calakmul Municipality, Campeche Providence N18 07 21 W89 47 00 Ref: 1061 Calakmul, an important Maya site set deep in the tropical forest of the Tierras Bajas of southern Mexico, played a key role in the history of this region for more than twelve centuries. Its imposing structures and its characteristic overall layout are remarkably well preserved and give a vivid picture of life in an ancient Maya capital. Criterion i: The many commemorative stelae at Calakmul are outstanding examples of Maya art, which throw much light on the political and spiritual development of the city. Criterion ii: With a single site Calakmul displays an exceptionally well preserved series of monuments and open spaces representative of Maya architectural, artistic, and urban development over a period of twelve centuries. Criterion iii: The political and spiritual way of life of the Maya cities of the Tierras Bajas region is admirably demonstrated by the impressive remains of Calakmul. Criterion iv: Calakmul is an outstanding example of a significant phase in human settlement and the development of architecture.
Calakmul The Biosphere Reserve "Calakmul" was created by Presidential Decree on May 23, 1989 and is part of the National System of Protected Natural Areas (SINAP) with a total area of 723.185 hectares in the municipality of Calakmul, which includes core areas and buffer. The two core areas are the best preserved areas and undisturbed, which housed ecosystems, natural phenomena of special importance or flora and fauna species requiring special protection, where the only activities allowed are scientific preservation and environmental education. As regards the buffer zones are surfaces that are intended to protect the core areas of the external impact and where you can engage in productive activities, educational and recreational, as well as applied research and research. The fauna of the region of Calakmul species are considered rare, endemic, threatened or endangered species such as ocelots, jaguars, howler and spider monkeys, as well as the Ocellated which require conservation. Abound in the region as guayacan timber species, mahogany, cedar, and logwood or Campeche, industrial species such as sapodilla, and rubber; forage species such as Ramon, and fruits such as black sapote, nance, mamey, ciricote, xanisté and guava, among others. There are several archaeological sites of l the Mayan civilization, among which stand out Calakmul, El Ramonal, Xpujil, Becán, Chicana, Rio Bec and Hormiguero, mostly belonging to the classic period, representing a very significant from the standpoint of cultural history in the national and and international tourism development
Los Petenes The Petenes are small islands with tropical forest vegetation that develop between the mangroves. This area was issued on July 4, 1996, under the state system, Special Protection Area Wildlife and Aquatic "Los Petenes", with an area of 382.857 ha. On May 24, 1999 was enacted, under federal rules, the Biosphere Reserve "The Petenes." The area deals with your current declaration 282,857.62 ha. It includes the municipalities of Hecelchakán, Calkiní and part of the Campeche and Tenabo. It is a sparsely populated land area and thus low environmental impact by human activities. Its natural features and access diflcil make it a very attractive area of ecotourism. Therein lies the island of Jaina, a major cemetery and ceremonial center of the ancient Maya culture, whose figurines are internationally recognized and appreciated Ecosystem life revolves around a cenote or spring and balance, fragile and delicate, is maintained between the supply of fresh water and salt water intrusion along the bottom hydrodynamic and topographic found only in Campeche. The floristic composition of the Petén varies with respect to its distance from the coastline. Those closest to the sea are denoted by red mangrove, black and white. With increasing distance from the sea changes to mangrove buttonwood and in outlying areas, there are species typical of lowland flooding as Chechen, logwood, sapodilla, Chaco, custard and sabal. Ecosystem life revolves around a cenote or spring and balance, fragile and delicate, is maintained between the supply of fresh water and salt water intrusion along the bottom hydrodynamic and topographic found only in Campeche. The floristic composition of the Petén varies with respect to its distance from the coastline. Those closest to the sea are dominated by red mangrove, black and white. With increasing distance from the sea changes to mangrove buttonwood and in outlying areas, there are species typical of lowland flooding as Chechen, logwood, sapodilla, Chaco, custard and sabal. The importance of this region protected sesustenta in: The recognition that this is a protection zone, food and rest for the local wildlife migration. Part of a series of habitats, in terms of hydrodynamic and topographic, only observed in Campeche. The region is considered important for the survival of a variety of waterfowl, both migratory and resident. It is also true for many reptiles and cats, white-tailed deer, monkey and numerous araí'ia mollusks, fish and crustaceans, some of which are commercially important. This protected area has its Management Plan, with administrative direction and advice advisory.
Laguna de Términos La Laguna de Términos was decreed protected area the June 6, 1994 has an area of 705.016 hectares and is part of Mexico's most important delta. Estuarine lagoon system is the largest volume and surface area of the country. It is an ecological complex comprising the coastal marine continental pataforma mirrors composed of freshwater, brackish and estuarine marina; xona seagrass, fluvial deltaic system associated wetlands and mangroves. In a coastal beauty, this area covers the municipalities of Carmen, Palizada and Champotón. There lies Ciudad del Carmen, the second most important settlement of the state population, and traditional fishing villages and Sabancuy as Isla Aguada. It is a nesting site and food for commercially important species. In the main body and fluvio lagoon systems associated with it, feed, are born and develop different species such as shrimp, holds a business that generates annual dólaits 194 million, approximately. This region presents a rich mosaic of aquatic, coastal, mangrove vegetation in swamps, flooded low forest, scrub flood inert, high-forest and secondary growth medium. Mangroves are the most representative vegetation of the place. It is home to animals such as jaguar, ocelot, taffy badger, deer, raccoon, manatee and bottlenose dolphin. It is also the nesting site and a haven for various species of birds such as Jabiru stork. Among the reptiles are the boa constrictor, iguana green, pochitoque turtle, and freshwater chiquiguao and the crocodile.
Celestun It was created by presidential decree issued on June 19, 1979, initially as a Wildlife Refuge and is currently in the process of reclassification. This protected area is shared by the states of Campeche and Yucatan, in the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula. 45 percent of the circle of the Ria Celestun is located in the State of Campeche, in particular in the municipality of Calkiní in natural attraction sites and fishing villages like El Remate, Island Sand and Real de Salinas. The remaining 55% corresponds to the town of Celestun State of Yucatan. The total area of the reserve is 59.130 hectares. It is a vast wetland area well preserved and one of the largest areas of mangroves in the Gulf of Mexico. Its importance lies in being a space for nesting and reproduction of charismatic as the pink flamingo and the hawksbill turtle, and various migratory birds rest. Among the fauna found in the area are some medium-sized cats like jaguar and ocelot, and the marsh crocodile and the spider monkey, among others. This area has substantial commercial fishing of species such as octopus, conch and red and black species of scale in general. Its flora consists mainly of mangroves, coastal dunes and hillocks, noting species such as red mangrove, black mangrove, sapodilla, Chacco, pucté, nance and red stick.
Balam-Kin Balam-Kin was decreed by the Executive of the State, December 15, 1999, subject to ecological preservation zone, an area of 110.990 ha., Is located at the east end of the municipality of Champoton and abuts the buffer zone Biosphere Reserve of Calakmul. The area is a mosaic of natural landscapes, where you can see from flood to low hills. The climatic characteristics, soil types and the presence of bodies of water such as watering con6cidos (basic for survival of the fauna), make particular ecosystems that allow the existence of the dominant types of vegetation such as evergreen lowland forest (34.71%), the low deciduous forest (48.57%) and tropical deciduous forest (16.72%). The flora of the region is comprised of species such as jabin, lignum vitae, disheveled, cedar, mahogany, logwood, ramon, sapodilla, orchids, bromeliads, xate, blackwood, Chechen, Jobo, pucté, blackberry and tzalam, among others. Many specimens have a risk and protection status. Nearly 20 percent of the flora has been impacted by human activities such as illegal logging of precious species such as mahogany, cedar, lignum vitae, blackwood and ciricote, but most species have a long growth process. The access and internal roads are only open gaps in previous years by timber and chicle. Its fauna is composed of a large number of species of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, many of them reported under some risk status, whether threatened, endemic, rare or endangered. There are five of the six cats that live in Mexico, represented by the jaguar, ocelot, the jaguar, the ocelot and puma. In addition, species like the howler and spider monkeys, the Ocellated, toucan, curassows, king vulture, partridge cinnamon, gray hawk and falcon jungle, among others. Also present in the area some endemic species like the dwarf carpenter, the flycatcher and blue jay. Many of these are attractive to poachers. For this reason and the latent threat of new settlements and extensive clearing for agricultural activities the State Government proposed its categorization as a protected area.
Mexico Replacement of tropical forest by savannas is expected in the tropical forests of central and southern Mexico, along with replacement of semi-arid by arid vegetation in most of central and northern Mexico due to synergistic effects of both land use and climate changes (medium confidence) [13.4.1]. In tropical forests, species extinctions are likely [13.4]. Grain yield reductions could reach up to 30% by 2080 under the warmer scenario [13.4.2]. 73% to 78% reduction in coffee production by 2050 in Veracruz [Table 13.5]. By 2050, desertification and salinisation will affect 50% of agricultural lands in Latin America and the Caribbean zone [13.4.2] In some coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico, an increase in sea surface temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation was associated with an increase in dengue transmission cycles [13.2.2]. Projected sea surface temperature of 1-3°C by the 2080s [Table 13.7]. Models project a substantial increase in the number of people at risk of dengue due to changes in the geographical limits of transmission [13.4.5]. Projected impacts of climate change include 2-18% of the mammals, 2-8% of the birds and 1-11% of the butterflies committed to extinction with temperature increase of 1.3-3°C above pre-industrial levels [Table 4.1]. Sea level rise and sea surface temperature increases are very likely to affect buildings, tourism and the Mesoamerican coral reefs [13.4.4]. Coastal vegetated wetlands are sensitive to climate change and long-term sea-level change. Regional losses would be most severe on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North and Central America, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, the Baltic and most small island regions due to their low tidal range [22.214.171.124]. Mesoamerican coral reef and mangroves from Gulf of Mexico are expected to be threatened, with consequences for a number of endangered species; e.g. the green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles, the West Indian manatee and the American and Motelet’s species of crocodile with the projected 1-3 oC warmer sea surface temperature by the 2080s [Table 13.7]. Mangrove forests located in low-lying coastal areas are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise, increased mean temperatures, and hurricane frequency and intensity [13.2.2] Since the third assessment report, several highly unusual extreme weather events have been reported in Latin America, such as Hurricane Wilma and Stan (Oct. 2005) and Hurricane Emily (Jul. 2005). H. Wilma made several landfalls, mainly in the Yucatán Peninsula. Losses of US$1,881 million. 95% of the tourist infrastructure seriously damaged [13.2.2 & Table 13.1]. The impacts of Hurricanes Katrina, Rita and Wilma in 2005 and Ivan in 2004 demonstrated that the Gulf of Mexico offshore oil and natural gas platforms and pipelines, petroleum refineries, and supporting infrastructure can be seriously harmed by major hurricanes, which can produce national-level impacts, and require recovery times stretching to months or longer [14.2.8]. Climate Change Impacts on Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Countries. WWF. September 2007. Reported by the IPCC 4th Assessment Report
Mexico and CARICOM Climate Change Declaration We, the Heads of State and Government of Mexico and the Member States of the Caribbean (CARICOM), gathered together on February 21, 2010, in the Mexican Riviera Maya, confirm our commitment to reinforcing cooperation to deal with the threat of climate change through joint efforts by our nations. We express our concern over the scientific evidence showing that climate change induced by humans is worse than predicted and that the impacts of climate change we are already experiencing in our region will intensify. Since the Caribbean is a highly vulnerable region to the harmful effects of climate change, we are determined to strengthen our mitigation and adaptation policies with the support of the international community to cope with this serious threat. We call for an increase in cooperation in our region to achieve understanding and adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and in this respect, we will ask for the establishment of collaboration links between the Caribbean Community's Center for Climate Change (CCCCC) and the Government of Mexico. Our region widely acknowledges the fact that the development of mitigation actions will reduce the long-term costs and effects of the climate phenomenon. In this respect, we have been concerned to note that ever year, the continuous increase in global emissions reduces the possibilities of stabilizing the average global temperature and at the same time, increases the costs associated with this stabilization. We stress the need to continue negotiations within the United Nations Framework Agreement on Climate Change and the Bali Action Plan and we urge all the states to become constructively involved in the negotiations and to build on the results achieved in Copenhagen. We regard the Copenhagen Agreement as a significant step towards the implementation of the Bali Action Plan and express our interest in ensuring that the understanding reached over certain crucial elements will facilitate the negotiations underway at the Convention. We also welcome the fact that our region will host the 16th Conference of the Parties to the Convention (COP 16) and the 6th Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 6) and we pledge to collaborate and support the Mexican Government to ensure the adoption of a broad, ambitious, effective agreement that will meet the challenges and needs of mankind, particularly the most vulnerable sectors. CARICOM and Mexico agree over the importance of ensuring that the COP 16 results are legally binding.
Campeche Background The state of Campeche has a large population of indigenous peoples. Of these the most significant in numbers, as well as history, are the Yucatec Maya, concentrated in the oldest settlements in the north of the state. This group extends over the greater part of the Yucatan Peninsula with 11% in Campeche, 76.25% in Yucatan, and 12.73% in Quintana Roo. Campeche also has a high concentration of indigenous refugees from Guatemala that are settled in refugee camps and, the southern part of the state has received migrants from other ethnic groups. The 1990 census shows that there are 45 different languages represented in the state, among which the most important are Ch’ol, Tzeltal, Kanjobal, and Mam. Most of the territory of Campeche is characterized by a sub-humid climate and a dense tropical forest cover. There is also a low-lying region with lakes and a riverine area. The "milpa" system, predominant in the state, requires an in-depth knowledge of the specific ecological systems, including the cycles of various plants and rains as well as the fallow period required by the soils. Hunting and gathering are supplementary subsistence activities. Local natural resources are used to provide housing materials, as well as, energy needs. All together these activities, plus forestry and livestock rearing have had a devastating effect on the tropical forest, and attempts to reverse this effect are being made through the programs of sustainable development that focus on reforestation and wildlife management. The politics of preservation have given rise to various protected areas. Among these, the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve stands out because of the number of indigenous migrants living within the reserve’s 723,185 hectares of dense tropical forest and the plans for ecological and archaeological-tourism development.
Demography of Indigenous Groups in Campeche Population density is very low (11.3 inhabitants per square kilometer) compared to the national average of 46 inhabitants per square kilometer. The population is concentrated in the municipalities of El Carmen, Campeche, and Champoton which together account for 72.3% of the state’s total population. The remaining 27.7% of the state’s population is dispersed over the rest of the state’s territory. The census figures in the period between 1980 and 1990 show a slow growth rate of indigenous language speakers (ages 5 years and over) as compared to the total population of the state. This low rate of growth is unlikely to accurately reflect the natural rate of growth, due to three sources of distortion: under enumeration of the immigrants from the southern portion of the state; the out-migration from the northern part of the state’s predominantly Maya speaking population; and gradual loss of indigenous language speakers (ILS), the defining indicator in the census. In contrast to the rate of growth as defined by ILS, the real natural population growth rate is highest in the municipalities with a high concentration of indigenous population, because the average number of live births per woman is higher than the state’s average. However, the state’s overall population balance is heavily affected by the migratory movements. Campeche is considered to be a state of great migratory attraction, in 1990 occupying ninth place in the nation for in-migration. The non-indigenous migrants are concentrated in the municipalities of El Carmen, Campeche, and Champoton, while indigenous migrants are drawn to areas where there is available land. The low population density of the state and the availability of land render it an area of new colonization. Some of the colonization programs have resulted in the creation of collective ejidos and settlements in what have come to be known as New Ejido Population Centers (NPC), that are playing an increasingly important role as organizational poles for new indigenous population.
Spanish and Indigenous Languages in Campeche The main languages spoken in Campeche belong to the Maya group and include Yucatec Maya, Ch’ol, and Tzeltal. Linguistic transmission takes place within the household and family through informal daily education. Although there are government programs that seek to preserve and reinforce the use of these languages, their results are mixed, and limited to the Mayan language. In Campeche statistics show that 91.43% of the indigenous language speakers are bilingual in both an indigenous language and Spanish. The remaining 6.31% are monolingual. If bilingualism is to be considered an indicator of acculturation, these high figures would portend to show a high degree of acculturation and of re- definition of ethnic indigenous identity. Although the high levels of bilingualism show linguistic acculturation, indigenous customs and world view persist along with a strong capacity to adapt elements from the national culture into indigenous forms of organization due primarily to the high numbers of indigenous peoples in the state. These are reinforced by in-migration of new ethnic groups which explains the high linguistic heterogeneity (43 languages other than Maya and Ch’ol), with a predominance of Kanjobal and Mam.
Indigenous Regions in Campeche There are five distinct regions in the state. The statistical information available is discontinuous due to the creation of the Calakmul, out of pieces of other municipalities. Camino Real (Calkini, Hecelchakan and Tenabo) is a region characterized by a peninsular Maya peoples which due to their proximity to outside communications is more open to other cultural influences. The people of this region live in traditional population centers with significant land pressure. The economy is based on traditional agriculture, artisanal work and riverine fishing. The small municipality of Tenalbo, even with its tradition of intensive irrigated agriculture is an area of strong labor out-migration. Chenes Region (Hopelchen, and part of Campeche), also with a peninsular Maya population, but one which is more highly traditional and conservative, due to its relatively high isolation, is an area with a high incidence of monolingual speakers. Its economy is based on traditional agriculture and forestry. Settlements are widely dispersed and land pressure less than in the previously described region. Champoton Region has a lower indigenous population density as well as a population long in contact with an inmigrated non-indigenous population. The economy is based on fishing, livestock production, and intensive cash crop production: sugar, rice and copra, although forestry and apiculture are relatively important in the eastern portion of this region. Calakmul has a heterogeneous indigenous population which in-migrated with the opening of new areas for colonization. Despite a low population density, it is nevertheless a region with great pressure on the existing resources and competition between the residents of ejidos and the organizations of new migrants. A large part of this region encompasses the Biosphere Reserve of Calakmul, and the existing settlements and their populations have had to adapt to the regulations governing the Biosphere’s resources and its adjacent buffer zone. The economy is based on traditional agriculture and the exploitation of forest resources. The Southwestern region (El Carmen, Palizada, and Escarcega) has a low percentage of indigenous population and is linked to the adjacent center of Villahermosa, the capital of Tabasco. The petroleum extracting activities in the zone have had a strong impact on the local economy as well as on livestock production and commercial agriculture. In each of these regions, inter-ethnic relations are defined by the density of indigenous population, and by the dominant ethnic group. Traditional forms of Maya organization with a long history of association with a mestizo population of Spanish descent, predominate in Camino Real, resulting in a relatively open and dynamic system of cultural relations compared to the Chenes region and its more conservative population. The southern municipalities are shaped by immigrant ethnic groups who adapted to the organizational forms of the ejido developing similar forms of political representation and decision-making for resource management, layered by a continuous interaction with mestizos. This interaction has attenuated ethnic differences. The city of Campeche has unique characteristics as an old indigenous settlement which retains--in its periphery and peri-urban area--a highly traditional indigenous population combined with recent indigenous migrants. As a result, the municipality of Campeche has a much higher density of ILS, and classifies as a "predominantly indigenous" municipality according to Instituto Nacional Indigenista definitions.
Yucatán Moist Forests (NT0181) Location:Neotropics Biome:Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest Size:Ecos: 69,700 km2 Status:Vulnerable General:Bio corridor in between the drier forests in the north and more humid environments in the Southwest. Special:Temperature fairly constant throughout the year. Large part of this eco region lies atop karst (limestone). Karst forests typically harbor many endemic species. Climate:Mostly hot subhumid - mean annual temperature > 22 °C, temperature of the coldest month > 18 °C, annual precipitation 500 - 2500 mm. Fauna:More than 15 species of amphibians, 40 reptiles, 200 birds and 90 mammal species Dangers:Logging, agriculture, cattle grazing, road construction, illegal trade in wild species
Yucatán Moist Forests (NT0181) Southern North America: Yucatán Peninsula in southern Mexico extending into northern Guatemala, and northern Belize Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests 26,900 square miles (69,700 square kilometers) -- about the size of West Virginia Conservation Status: Vulnerable Forests of the Maya The Yucatán forests form a biological corridor that allows the exchange of species between the drier forests of northern Yucatán and the more humid environments of the southwest. These forests are home to more than 15 species of amphibians, 40 reptiles, 200 birds and 90 mammals. On the island of Cozumel, just off the eastern Yucatán, one can find many endemic species, including the Cozumel vireo, thrasher, and emerald hummingbird, and the Cozumel Island raccoon and coati. endemic The northern portion of the forest is an important area for many interesting bird species, including Caribbean elaenia, migratory species like prairie warblers and peregrine falcons, and species with local distributions like the Caribbean dove, the zenaida dove, and the black catbird. In addition to its rich forests, this ecoregion borders wetlands of great importance, like the Ria Lagartos mangroves and the Sian Ka'an wetlands. wetlands
Special Features In the tropical, humid climate of the Yucatán Moist Forests, the temperature remains fairly constant throughout the year. Some areas of deep soils called akalché are periodically flooded, providing a source of water for native villagers and wildlife species alike. Much of this ecoregion lies atop rugged, weathered limestone called karst. Karst forests around the world are noted for having many endemic plant species.
Wild Side In the warm and humid Yucatán Moist Forests, small spotted cats called margays climb high into the trees. They can actually rotate their rear paws inward so that they can climb down a tree and pounce from this position. They feed on small mammals, lizards, and bird eggs. Other famous felines here include the ocelots that stalk monkeys and birds, jaguarundi that hunt for small rodents and ground nesting birds, and the secretive jaguar. The Mexican black howler monkey is largely restricted to this ecoregion. The ecoregion is home to an amazing variety of bird species, from black and white owls, King vultures, and ocellated turkeys to harpy eagles, great curassows, scarlet macaws, and Yucatán parrots. The southeastern part of the region, where the land is swampy, is filled with chicle, fiddlewood, and chaca trees, and palms are scattered in the understory.
Cause for Concern Almost all the forests in the northern part of the coastal plain have been lost to logging, agriculture, and cattle farming. What's left of these forests continues to be cleared to make roads for expanding human populations in the area. In addition, game hunting threatens many of the already endangered species here, and illegal trade in wild species is extensive. This area once supported a large human population and extensive agriculture during the Maya period.