BILL OF RIGHTS First ten amendments of Constitution. All of these ratified at same time. Purpose: protect citizens against government.
FIRST AMENDMENT Free speech. Freedom of religion. Freedom of the press. Freedom to assemble. Freedom of petition.
SECOND AMENDMENT Right to “bear arms”. Well regulated militia for protection. Written before U.S. had full time soldiers.
THIRD AMENDMENT Do not have to “quarter soldiers” unless property owner gives permission.
FOURTH AMENDMENT Law enforcement must have warrant before search and seizure of property. Exception: Supreme Court has ruled officers do not need warrant if they prove ‘probable cause’ that crime has been committed.
FIFTH AMENDMENT No self-incrimination: Do not have to give certain information to law enforcement officers. No double jeopardy: Can not be tried twice for the same crime. Due Process: must be found guilty before being sentenced. Appeal: can ask for a review of case.
SIXTH AMENDMENT Right to a lawyer. Public Defenders: Court appointed lawyers for defendants too poor to afford one.
SEVENTH AMENDMENT Right to jury trial. Voir Dire: Jury selection process, prosecutor and defense agree to best jury possible.
EIGHTH AMENDMENT Right to Bail: Sum of money used as deposit so defendant can be free while waiting for trial. No cruel or unusual punishment. Example: Torture is not allowed in U.S.
NINTH AMENDMENT Right to privacy: If there is no law against an action, it is legal.