4 Theory of Aryan Invasion ~1500 B.C.E. Aryan tribes from the Central Asian Steppes crossed the Himalayas into India
5 The Aryans divided their society into separate castes Castes were unchanging groups.A person born into one caste never changed castes or mixed with members of other castes.Caste members lived, ate, married, and worked with their own group.
6 The Caste SystemA system for ranking society into social groups based on birth and wealthAt the top of the caste system were the Brahmin – the priests, teachers, and judges.Next came the Kshatriya (KUH SHAT REE YUHZ), the warrior caste.
7 The Vaisya caste (VEEZ YUHZ) were the farmers and merchants Sudras, were craftworkers and laborersThe untouchables were the outcastes, people beyond the caste systemTheir jobs were considered “polluting activities”
8 The Varnas Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaisyas Sudras Untouchables Highest, preists/teachersKshatriyasWarriors/rulersVaisyasCommoners – traders/farmers etc…SudrasServantsUntouchablesBelow the caste
10 Hinduism Not an organized religion no single approach to teaching it Has common core beliefs:Belief in a supreme beingKey Concepts: Truth dharma, karma
11 Truth is EternalHindus pursue knowledge and understanding of the Truth: the essence of the universe and the only Reality
12 Brahman is Truth and Reality Brahman as the one true God who is formless, limitless, all-inclusive, and eternalBrahman is a real entity that encompasses everything (seen and unseen) in the universe
13 The Vedas are the ultimate authority. Holy Books of Hinduism - scriptures that contain revelations received by ancient saints and sages
14 Everyone should try to achieve dharma Dharma can be described as right conduct, righteousness, moral law, and dutyTo follow Dharma one must try to do the right thing, according to one’s duty and abilities, at all times
15 Individual souls are immortal A Hindu believes that the individual soul (atman) is eternalActions of the soul reflect on the next life
16 The process of movement of the atman from one body to another is known as transmigration (aka reincarnation)The kind of body the soul inhabits next is determined by karma (actions in previous lives)
17 The goal of each soul is moksha Moksha is liberation: the soul’s release from the cycle of death and rebirth.It occurs when the soul unites with Brahman by realizing its true nature.
19 The Hindu triumvirateThe three gods who are responsible for the creation, upkeep and destruction of the world
20 Brahma is the first godBrahma's job was creation of the world and all creaturesBrahma is the least worshipped god in Hinduism
21 Vishnu is the second god His role is to return to the earth in troubled times and restore the balance of good and evil.So far, he has been incarnated nine times, but Hindus believe that he will be reincarnated one last time close to the end of this world
22 Shiva is the third godShiva's role is to destroy the universe in order to re- create itHindus believe his powers of destruction and recreation are used to destroy the imperfections of this world, paving the way for change
23 LakshmiLakshmi is the consort of the god Vishnu. She is one of the most popular goddesses of Hindu mythology and is known as the goddess of wealth and purity
24 PujaHindu worship, or puja, involves images (murtis), prayers (mantras) and diagrams of the universe (yantras)
25 Hindu worship is mostly an individual act, it involves making personal offerings to the deity Most Hindu homes have a shrine where offerings are made and prayers are said
26 Pilgrimage Important part of Hinduism Rivers, temples, mountains, and other sacred sites in India are destinations for pilgrimagesSites where the gods may have appeared