 # Using the Periodic Table to Draw Atoms

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Using the Periodic Table to Draw Atoms

Periodic Table & Orbitals/Energy Levels
Each row on the periodic table represents an orbital or energy level that electrons can occupy As you move down the rows on the periodic table, the numbers increase (beginning at 1 and following all the way to 7) The number on the row is the amount of orbitals available for electrons for EVERY ATOM in that row Example: Magnesium (Mg) is in the 3rd row. This means that it would have 3 orbitals for its electrons to occupy. Silicon (Si) is also in the 3rd row. So it would also have 3 orbitals for its electrons to occupy Example: Potassium (K) and Titanium (Ti) are both in the 4th row. This means that both of these atoms would have 4 orbitals for their electrons to occupy

Periodic Table & Orbitals/Energy Levels
Try these examples: Element Row # of orbitals Silver (Ag) Xenon (Xe) Fluorine (F) Carbon (C)

What do these orbitals mean?
Orbitals are energy levels outside the nucleus where the electrons are found When you draw atoms, you have to “Fill” the orbitals up with electrons Steps/rules for filling orbitals with electrons: 1) The first orbital can only hold 2 electrons 2) The remaining orbitals can only hold 8 electrons 3) Each orbital must be completely filled with its maximum amount of electrons before another orbital can be drawn

Steps for Drawing Atoms – Example: Phosphorus
Begin by determining the number of protons, neutrons, electrons and orbitals for your atom Draw your nucleus - This should look like a circle Inside your nucleus write down the number of protons and neutrons - Place a p+ by your number of protons - Place a no by your number of neutrons Draw your orbitals around your nucleus - These should look like semicircles outside of the nucleus 5. Fill the orbitals with electrons - Remember the steps/rules