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The Periodic Table.

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Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Periodic Table

2 Organization Group/family = vertical column Period = row

3 Grouping of elements Metals – most elements on the table, left side
Nonmetals – far right and hydrogen Metalloids – along zig-zag line; divides metals and non-metals

4 Metals Good conductors of heat/electricity Malleable (can be formed)
Ductile (made into wires) Reflects light High densities High melting points Most are solids at room temperature Easily lose electrons corrode

5 Nonmetals Not good conductors of heat/electricity Dull Brittle
Low melting points Low densities Are solids, liquids and gasses at room temperature Tend to gain electrons

6 Metalloids Cross between metals and nonmetals
Solids at room temperature Can be shiny or dull Malleable Ductile So-so conductors (better than nonmetals, but not as good as metals) Form semiconductors when bonded

7 Groups/families Group 1 – alkali metals
React with water to form alkalines (bases) Very reactive; not found alone in nature, found as compounds Very soft metals Have one valence (outermost) electron

8 Groups/families Group 2 – alkaline earth metals
Also form alkalines with water Also very reactive, so not found as pure elements in nature Not as reactive as group 1 Have 2 valence electrons

9 Groups/families Group 17 – halogens Means “salt former”
Tend to form salts with group 1 elements Most reactive of the nonmetals Have 7 valence electrons

10 Groups/families Group 18 – noble gases Very unreactive
All are gases at room temperature Have a full set of valence electrons Full set = 8, except for helium which has 2

11 Groups Groups 3 – 12: Transition metals
Can put more than 8 electrons in their outermost orbital Can use the 2 most outer orbitals to bond (the others use only the outermost) Can form ions with different charges

12 Development of the periodic table
In 1865, John Newlands, an English Chemist, arranged the elements according to their properties and in order of increasing atomic mass. He noticed a pattern that repeated every 8 elements, so he called it the law of octaves

13 Development of the periodic table (cont)
Dimitri Mendeleev, in 1869, used this information and produced the first orderly arrangement of all 63 known elements. He arranged them in a similar way to Newlands and created the first periodic table. Mendeleev started a new row each time he noticed that the chemical properties of the elements repeated. He left gaps where he thought newly discovered elements should go and made predictions about these elements

14 Mendeleev’s table

15 Mendeleev’s predicted elements

16 Modern Periodic Table Elements did not always fit neatly on the table in order of atomic mass Henry Moseley studied the x-ray spectra of 38 different elements He noticed a pattern as the atomic mass increased However, after further study, he realized that the correlation was to atomic number and not atomic mass. The table was arranged in increasing atomic number and any discrepancies from Mendeelev’s table disappeared

17 Modern Periodic Table (cont)
Periodic Law: the principle of chemical periodicity. When elements are arranged according to their atomic numbers, elements with similar properties appear at regular intervals. This law works because of the pattern in the electron configuration of the elements. Elements in each column of the periodic table have the same number of valence electrons (electrons in their outer energy level)

18 Valence electrons Electron located in the outermost energy levels
Valence electrons are the ones that participate in chemical reactions. Elements with the same number of valence electrons tend to react in similar ways. This allows scientists to predict the properties and behavior of unknown elements.

19 Periodic trends Tells you how certain characteristics change as you move across and down the periodic table 3 trends that we will look at: Atomic radius Ionization energy electronegativity

20 Atomic radius The “size” of the atom
Decreases as you move from left to right across a row Reason: as you move across a period, you add electrons to the atom in the same energy level. You also add protons to the nucleus, thus increasing the pull of the nucleus on the electrons, drawing them closer to the nucleus (effective nuclear charge) Increases as you move down a column Reason being is that when adding electrons, you add them in increasing energy levels, making the atom larger



23 Ionization energy The energy needed to remove an electron from an atom
Increases as you move across Reason: effective nuclear charge increases requiring more energy to take them away (the outermost electrons are the first ones to be removed) Decreases as you move down Reason: the electrons that are added to increasing energy levels are further away from the nucleus, thus the attraction is decreased making it easier to take them away Also, you have “electron shielding” which is when the inner electrons “shield” the outer ones from the pull of the nucleus


25 Electronegativity An atom’s desire to attract electrons
The more electronegative atom will take electrons away from a less electronegative atom (like a big brother takes toys from the little brother) Increases as you move across Reason: effective nuclear charge increases so electrons are attracted more strongly Decreases as you move down Reason: electron shielding decreases effective nuclear charge, decreasing the attraction



28 Natural Elements Only 93 of the elements on the periodic table occur in nature Technetium (Tc) and Promethium (Pm) were detected in the stars, but not found on earth Some elements can form through nuclear reactions (fusing of nuclei) Center of stars transmutations

29 Transmutations One element changes into another through a nuclear reaction – NOT ALCHEMY Radioactive elements do this naturally We have “created” synthetic elements using particle accelerators cyclotron

30 Cyclotrons Speeds particles up to very high energies and then collides them Nuclei of the particles fuse, creating “new” elements Some of these are “superheavy” elements Atomic number greater than 106 Usually only a few nuclei are created, making it hard for scientists to study They usually decay within a fraction of a second

31 Cyclotron at Berne, Switzerland

32 Cyclotron

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