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The Constitution. Roots of the Revolution Lack of Colonial Autonomy –Economic –Political Boston Tea Party –Coercive Acts First Continental Congress –Olive.

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Presentation on theme: "The Constitution. Roots of the Revolution Lack of Colonial Autonomy –Economic –Political Boston Tea Party –Coercive Acts First Continental Congress –Olive."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Constitution

2 Roots of the Revolution Lack of Colonial Autonomy –Economic –Political Boston Tea Party –Coercive Acts First Continental Congress –Olive Branch Petition Second Continental Congress –Lexington and Concord –Common Sense –Declaration of Independence

3 Declaration of Independence And Common Sense Common Sense –Thomas Paine Monarchy and Hereditary Succession The Wars and Tyranny of Kings The Economic and Political abilities of Americans Declaration of Independence –Thomas Jefferson Social Contract Theory - John Locke List if Grievances Formal Separation from England Debated - Slavery and Slave Trade

4 Articles of Confederation Confederation – loose association of independent states The Articles of Confederation – Established the first government of the United States –November 15, 1777 –Fear of Central Power – National Government lack any real Power –Four Reasons for Failure No power to tax No head of State No regulation of interstate or foreign commerce Each state how power to veto amendments

5 Constitution Convention Shays’s Rebellion –Demonstrated need for Stronger Government Edmond Randolph of Virginia –Virginia Plan Encouraged creating of new document Three Branches of Government –Legislative –Executive –Judicial Two House Legislature –Representation based on taxes paid Called for strong national government Favored the large and wealthy states

6 Continued New Jersey Plan –William Paterson of New Jersey –Legislature based on equal representation –Favored by small and poor states –Forced a Compromise Great Compromise –Roger Sherman of Connecticut –House based on size –Senate is equal –Legislation approved by both chambers

7 Continued Presidency –Fear of popular vote –Fear of return of monarchy –Fear of election by legislature –Compromise = electoral college Electors choose president Each state choose electors in proportion to representatives House votes in tie Parties dominate in modern elections –Four year term and no term limits –House can charge with impeachment –Senate can try impeachment charge

8 Continued 3/5 th Clause –Slavery a big part of American Economy Slavery not mentioned in Constitution –Other Persons –The question of representation of slaves Should they count towards population? –Slave States = yes –Free States = no(ish) –Slaves will count as 3/5 th of a person Gave southern states greater representation –47% of congress Gave southern states more electors Ended slave trade after 20 years

9 The Constitution Principles –Republicanism – power of the people Avoid aristocracy, monarchy, and democracy –Federalism – central and state authority –Separation of Powers Three Branches –Legislative – law making –Executive – law enforcing –Judicial – law interpreting Equal power between branches –Checks and Balances – each branch has some control over other branches Extraordinary Majority – over ride veto with 2/3 vote

10 10 The Preamble Four elements that create American Political Tradition –It Creates a People “We the people of the United States” Counters notion of independent states –It Explains the reason for the Constitution More Perfect union Counters Articles of Confederation –It Articulates Goals Promotes Order and Freedom –It Fashions a Government Creates the United States 10

11 Continued Seven Seven Articles –Article 1: The Legislative Article Bicameral Enumerated Powers (1-17) – powers given –Necessary and Proper Clause (18) - means to execute powers »Implied Powers – powers need to execute powers –Article 2: The Executive Article Provides election info and powers given –Article 3: The Judicial Article Vague, left structure up to congress and president Judicial Review – declare acts unconstitutional (implied) –Marbury v. Madison –Article VI: Supremacy clause – national laws take precedence

12 Ratification Need nine state to ratify become law –Nation Slit over Constitution Federalist – supported – favored national government Antifederalist – did not support – favored state gov Federalist Papers –Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison = Publius –85 newspaper articles supporting ratification Federalist No 10 – avoid factions, pluralism, or “tyranny of the majority” (mob rule) Federalist No 51 – control tyranny through “separation of powers” and “checks and balances” Anti-Federalist Papers –Brutus –Not as influential

13 Bill of Rights States would not ratify without Bill of Rights –List basic civil liberties and civil rights –Purpose of Revolution War Federalist No 84 – BofR would be “Dangerous” –Not possible to list prohibited powers George Washington – Amendment process Bill of Rights – First 10 amendments to the constitution Construction Adopted

14 14 Continue Bill of Rights –1st Amendment Religion, Speech, press, assemble & petition government –2nd Amendment Right to bear arms –4th Amendment Search and Seizures –5th Amendment Self-incrimination & due process –10th Amendment Rights reserved to the states

15 Amendment Process Two Stages –Proposal Stage A) 2/3 vote of both houses of congress (All) B) National convention by congress, requested by 2/3 states –Ratification Stage A) ¾ of states legislatures ratify (all but 1) B) Constitutional Convention in ¾ of states Difficulty is intended in process –First 10 – Bill of Rights –Next 17 – make public policy, correct deficiencies, or promote equality

16 Constitution – The Legend Oldest Constitution Most copied Constitution Short Constitution today –Original Intent or Living Document Provides balance between order and freedom –No attention to equality – amendments Amendments and Social Change –13th, 14th, 15th - Civil War Amendments –16th - income tax - Progressive Taxation –19th - Women Vote –24th - prohibited poll tax –23rd - Citizens of Washington DC can vote –26th - voting age at 18

17 17 Majority or Plurality Majoritarian Democracy –Founders intended a Republic Majority Consent –Not a Democracy Majority Rule Pluralist Democracy –Constitution Promotes Plurality –Intention of the Founders? Factions Electoral College Interest Groups

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