2 Important Vocabulary Theism – Monotheism – Salvation – Orthodox – Canon –Predestination –Prophet –Clergy –Belief in the existence of a god or gods.The belief in one god.Deliverance from the power and penalty of sin.Conforming to the approved form of any doctrine, philosophy, etc.The books of the Bible recognized by any Christian church as genuine and inspired.The act of God in foreordaining, from eternity, whatever comes to passA person who speaks for God or a deity, or by divine inspirationThe group or body of ordained people in a religion
3 IslamBasic FactsOrigins and HistoryReligious Beliefs
4 Basic Facts Followers are called Muslims Islam is mainly concentrated in the Middle East and Southeast AsiaQu’ran (Koran) is the sacred text of IslamHadith (Other written authority)Imams (Clergy)“Word of God”Identical book in HeavenDivided into 114 chapters or SurahsSurahs are revelations given to Mohammed1. “Tradition” 2. Collection of the sayings and actions of MohammedMosque (House of Worship)Main day of worship – Friday
5 Shi’a Sunni Origins and History Founded 622 AD Founded in Arabia (Saudi Arabia today)Believed that Ali (Mohammed’s Son-in-Law was the rightful successor as leader of Islam following Mohammed’s death)Ali is revered as a saint to the Shi’aThe Shi’a are dominant in Iraq and IranAccept Ali as well as the 3 other leaders that came before him and after MohammedFollow the belief that a new leader should be elected from those proven to be capable of the job.Sunni Muslims make up the majority of Muslims all over the world (85%)Founded by Mohammed Ibn AbdallahOriginal Language - ArabicWithin 12 years Islam had spread to the entire Arabian Peninsula. Within 100 years, the Islam had spread from the Atlantic to ChinaMajor Split – Shi’a/Sunni 650 AD
6 Religious Beliefs Monotheistic faith Allah (Arabic for God) The Qur’an is the inspired, literal word of God. Inerrant in original languages.Humans have the equal ability to do good or evil
7 Religious Beliefs cont. Salvation is attained by: good deeds, correct belief, Five PillarsSalvation predestined by AllahShahadahSalah (Prayer)Sawm (Fasting)Zakat (Charitable Giving)Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca)Afterlife exists:Good Afterlife – Eternal ParadiseBad Afterlife – Eternal Hell
8 Islamic View of Other Abrahamic Religions Jews and Christians are respected as “People of the Book,” but they have wrong beliefs and only partial revelation.
9 JudaismBasic FactsOrigins and HistoryReligious Beliefs
10 Basic Facts Talmud Midrash Responsa Followers are called Jews Judaism is mainly concentrated in Israel, USA, and EuropeSacred Text is the BibleChristian Old TestamentTorah (Books of Moses) – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, DeuteronomyWritten decisions and rulings given by the scholarsVerse by verse interpretation of Hebrew scripturesJewish Law, Ethics, Customs and HistoryOther Written Authority: Talmud, Midrash, Responsa
11 Basic Facts cont. Clergy - Rabbis Main day of worship - Saturday House of Worship - Synagogue
12 Origins and History Date Founded - unknown Founded in Israel/Palestine Founded by Moses or AbrahamOriginal Language - HebrewLittle ExpansionMajor Split – Reform/Orthodox (1800s)
13 Religious Beliefs Names of God – Yahweh or Elohim Views vary when it comes to the origin and inspiration of Sacred TextsHumans have two equal impulses: One good and one bad.
14 Religious Beliefs cont. Salvation comes from belief in God and good deedsYahweh has divine revelation and forgiveness (as opposed to predestination)AfterlifeGood Afterlife : either heaven, or no afterlifeBad Afterlife: either reincarnation, eternal hell, or no afterlifeu8
15 Jewish View of Other Abrahamic Religions Islam and Christianity are false extensions and interpretations of Judaism.
16 ChristianityBasic FactsOrigins and HistoryReligious Beliefs
17 Basic Facts Followers are called Christians Judaism is mainly concentrated in Europe, North and South America, rapid growth in AfricaSacred text is the BibleJewish Bible and New TestamentClergy are: priests, ministers, pastors, bishopsSplit into two sections: Old Testament and New TestamentHas 66 booksWas the first book to be printedHouse of worship: Church, Chapel, CathedralMain day of worship: Sunday
18 Origins and History Founded in 33 AD Founded in Israel/Palestine Founded by Jesus ChristOriginally written in Aramaic and GreekWithin 60 years, churches in major cities in Palestine, Turkey, Greece, and Rome; entire Roman Empire by the end of the 4th century.Major Split:Catholic/Orthodox (1054 AD)Catholic/Protestant (1500s AD)
19 Religious Beliefs Trinitarian Monotheism Names of God: Yahweh, the Holy TrinityThe Bible is inspired, some believe inerrant in original languagesHumans have “Original Sin” inherited from Adam
20 Religious Beliefs cont. Salvation comes from correct belief, faith, good deeds (Faith Alone)Predestination and varying forms of grace both play roles in salvationAfterlife:Good Afterlife: eternal heavenBad Afterlife: eternal hell, temporary purgatory (Catholicism)
21 Christian View of Other Abrahamic Religions Judaism is a true religion, but with incomplete revelation. Islam is a false religion.