GLONASS = Global navigation satellite system (Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema) Radio-based satellite navigation operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces First flight tests in 1982 Optimal of 24 satellites in 1995 Since May 2007 free service for customers In October 2011 – full global coverage
Standard Precision Service – Equivalent to Standard Positioning Service. Originally used L1 band but with modernization second civil signal L2 is transmitted. With first GLONASS-K the third band L3 is available for civilian users High Precision Service – Equivalent for the Precise Positioning Service. Shares same carrier wave as the SP signal but with ten times bigger bandwidth. P-code never published by operators but it was made known to scientific community.
24 satellites distributed over three planes. Ascending nodes are 120° apart. 8 satellites per plane with argument of latitude displacement of 45° Operates on circular orbit with 19100 km altitude and inclination of 64.8° Time of orbit = 11 hours 15 minutes
GLONASS-M – 2 nd generation. First launched in 2003. Provides feature of 2 nd civil Band. Size is 2.4 m in diameter, 3.7 m in height with dual solar arrays of 7.2m. Its mass its about 1480 kg and lifetime about 2-3 years. Remarkable feature – addition of second band for civil signal. GLONASS-K – 3 rd generation. Lifetime of 10 years and weight reduced to 750 kg. Includes the CDMA for first time.
The GLONASS Ground Segment is the responsible for the proper operation of the GLONASS system. GLONASS Control Segment monitors the status of satellites, Determines the ephemerides and satellite clock offsets and, twice a day, uploads the navigation data to the satellites. Consists of: System Control Centre Five Telemetry, Tracking and Command centers Central Clock Three Upload Stations Two Laser Ranging Stations Four Monitoring and Measuring Stations Six Additional Monitoring and Measuring Stations
Consists of L-band radio receiver/processors and antennas which receive GLONASS signals, determine pseudo ranges and solve navigation equations. GLONASS receiver is capable of determining user position, velocity and precise time by processing the signal broadcasted by satellites Applications : Armed Forces, Communication and energy system synch, Geodesy, Cartography, Navigation, Animals monitoring