Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright"— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright
Chapter 10 Wild Species and Biodiversity PPT by Clark E. Adams

2 Wild Species and Biodiversity
The value of wild species Saving wild species Biodiversity and its decline Protecting Biodiversity

3 Appreciating the Worth of Diversity
The worth ($) of plant and animal diversity in terms of goods and services Factors that contribute to a reduction in plant and animal diversity Understanding the “costs” of losing plant and animal diversity Programs to protect biodiversity

4 Puffin Project: Seabird Restoration
Project of the Audubon Society

5 The Value of Wild Species
Biological wealth Two kinds of value Sources for agriculture, forestry, aquaculture, and animal husbandry Sources for medicine Recreational, aesthetic, and scientific value Value for their own sake

6 Biological Wealth = $38 Trillion/Year
Gas, climate, and water regulation Water supply Erosion control Soil formation Pollination

7 Biological Wealth = $38 Trillion/Year
Biological control Food production Recreation Raw materials Nutrient cycling Waste treatment

8 Two Kinds of Value Instrumental: beneficial to humans
Sources for agriculture, forestry, aquaculture, and animal husbandry Recreational, aesthetic, and scientific value Sources of medicine Intrinsic: value for its own sake

9 Source for Agriculture: Wild or Cultivated?
Highly adaptable to changing environments Have numerous traits for resistance Lack genetic vigor

10 Source for Agriculture: Wild or Cultivated?
High degree of genetic diversity Represents the genetic bank Need highly controlled environmental conditions

11 Sources for Medicine: Vincristine


13 Sources of Medicine: Table 10-1
Vincristine from rosy periwinkle cures leukemia. Capoten from the venom of the Brazilian viper controls high blood pressure. Taxol from the bark of the pacific yew used to treat ovarian, breast, and small-cell cancers.

14 Recreational, Aesthetic, and Scientific Value
Ecotourism: largest foreign exchange-generating enterprise in many developing countries $104 billion spent on wildlife-related recreation $31 billion spent to observe, feed, or photograph wildlife

15 Recreational, Aesthetic, and Scientific Value

16 Value for Their Own Sake
Spiritual: giving divine recognition to selected species Religious: association between wild things and a creator Cultural: animal rights, American Indians

17 Saving Wild Species Game animals in the United States
Acts protecting endangered species

18 Past Wildlife Management Problems
Restoring the numbers of many game animals, e.g., deer, elk, turkey Passing laws to control the collection and commercial exploitation of wildlife Poaching and overhunting

19 Contemporary Wildlife Management Problems
Road-killed animals Population explosion of urban wildlife Lack of natural predators Wildlife as vectors for certain diseases Pet predation by coyotes Changed societal attitudes towards animals

20 Acts Protecting Endangered Species
Lacey Act: forbids interstate commerce of illegally killed wildlife Endangered Species Act (ESA): protects endangered and threatened species (Table 10-4) Total endangered U.S. species = 987 (388 animals, 599 plants) Threatened U.S. species = 276 (129 animals, 147 plants)

21 Strengths or Weaknesses of Endangered Species Act?
The need for official recognition Control over commercial exploitation of endangered species Government controls on development in critical habitats Recovery programs Habitat conservation plan (HCP)

22 Case Histories Peregrine falcon Whooping crane Spotted owl
Klamath river and coho salmon

23 Biodiversity and Its Decline
The decline in biodiversity Reasons for the decline Consequences of losing biodiversity


25 The Status of U.S. Species

26 Causes of Animal Extinctions

27 Reasons for Biodiversity Decline
Habitat alterations Conversions Fragmentation Simplification Human population growth Pollution (Fig )

28 Reasons for Biodiversity Decline
Introduction of exotic species, e.g., brown tree snake in Guam Overuse: combination of greed, ignorance, and desperation

29 Habitat Alterations Photo by C. E. Adams

30 Human Population Growth and Species Extinctions

31 Pollution: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
March 24, 1989 11 million gallons of crude oil spilled into Prince William Sound Oil slick

32 Exotic Species: Brazilian Pepper Bush

33 Overuse Harvest of 50 million songbirds for food

34 Overuse Trafficking in wildlife and products derived from wild species – $10 billion/year 90% decline in rhinos 1.6 tons of tiger bones = 340 tigers Parrot smuggling: 40 of 330 species face extinction

35 Consequences of Losing Biodiversity: The Plane Analogy
The whole plane is an ecosystem. There are many different parts (species) in the jet plane ecosystem. How does removal of one or more species affect ecosystem structure or function?

36 Protecting Biodiversity
International developments Stewardship concerns

37 International Steps to Protect Biodiversity
“Red List of Threatened Species” 11,167 species of plants and animals Convention on trade in endangered species (CITES) Focuses on trade in wildlife and wildlife parts Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD)

38 International Steps to Protect Biodiversity
Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) Stepping up war on invasive species Access to genetic resources Stem tide of deforestations Formulating a strategic plan through 2010

39 International Steps to Protect Biodiversity
Convention on biological diversity Focuses on conserving biological diversity worldwide Does not yet have the support of the United States

40 Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Sponsors: World Bank, Conservation International, and the Global Environment Facility Fund = $150 million for developing countries Protect biodiversity “hotspots”

41 Biodiversity Hotspots
60% of the biodiversity is located on just 1.4% of the Earth’s land surface.

42 Stewardship Concerns Managing and protecting something you DO NOT own. Involves: Wisdom Values

43 The Wisdom of Stewardship
Reforming policies that lead to declines in biodiversity Addressing the needs of people whose livelihood is derived from exploiting wild species

44 The Wisdom of Stewardship
Practicing conservation at the landscape level Promoting more research on biodiversity

45 The Values of Stewardship
Manage or mine the resource? Human perceptions of their relationships to the natural world Deep ecology: we are part of the Earth and not separate from it Religious faiths

46 End of Chapter 10

Download ppt "Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google