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The Scientific Method.  Theory  Hypothesis  Research  Support the theory OR Refute/Fail.

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Presentation on theme: "The Scientific Method.  Theory  Hypothesis  Research  Support the theory OR Refute/Fail."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Scientific Method

2  Theory  Hypothesis  Research  Support the theory OR Refute/Fail

3  Explanation based on observations  How a phenomenon (observable thing) works  Interconnected ideas/concepts  Used to explain prior observations or make predictions about future events

4  Prediction based on a theory  Specific, testable  Outcome should support the theory

5  Collection of data  Objective information/measurements

6  Theory  Alcohol impairs driving ability  Hypothesis  People who consume alcohol tend to display poorer coordination and motor skills than those who don’t  Research  Observed two groups – one drinks alcohol, the other doesn’t  Analyze data  Use statistical techniques

7  Something that can vary that the researcher can measure or manipulate  For the previous study some variables would be: Amount of alcohol consumed Level of intoxication Coordination Motor control Balance

8  Identifying variables so they can be measured  Coordination How easily people can touch their fingers to their nose with their eyes closed? The number of inches by which they miss by

9 Descriptive Longitudinal Cross-Sectional

10  Observational  Observing and noting behavior  Analyzing behavior objectively  Two types of observation:  Naturalistic Observer is separate from the situation  Participant Becomes one of the participants

11  Examine change over time  Study or follow the same participants multiple times over a period of time  Advantages: Provide info. about the effects of age on the same people  Disadvantages: Expensive Takes a long time May lose participants over time

12  Compares participants in different groups at the same time  Advantages: Quick and less expensive  Disadvantages: Unidentified variables may be involved

13 Observer (experimenter) Bias Participant Bias

14  Tendency or inclination  Prevents unprejudiced consideration of a question or idea

15  Errors in observation that occur because of an observer’s expectations  A study was conducted on male and female facial expressions when viewing a slide show  The study was trying to prove that men and women show the same emotional expression  If the observer believes women are more emotional than men, he/she may always observe emotional expressions on women and not on the men

16  When a person in a study knows what the observer is looking for they may change their behavior to fit the observer’s expectancy  Sometimes done on purpose  Sometimes unintentional

17  How variables are naturally related  Does not show causation  Amount of alcohol available in a community and the likeliness of car accidents  Advantages: Rely on naturally occurring relationships Take place in real world settings  Disadvantage Cannot show causal relationships Unidentified variables may be involved

18 A study that tests causal hypotheses by measuring and manipulating variables

19  Control  Comparison group  Participants who do not receive any intervention  Experimental  Treatment group  Receive intervention

20  Study on violent videos games and whether they encourage violent behavior  Control Group: Plays a non-violent game  Experimental Group: Plays a violent game  Study on how people are affected by alcohol use  Control Group: Drinks water  Experimental Group: Drinks alcohol

21 Independent Dependent

22  Variable that is manipulated  The amount of intoxication  Examines the impact on the dependent variable

23  Variable that is affected by the manipulation of the IV  Driving performance after intoxication

24  Results should generalize or apply to people beyond those in the study  Sampling  Process by which you select people from the population  Random Sampling  Represents the population  Equal chance of being chosen

25  Placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in a way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the IV


27  View behavior  Write descriptions  Tallies  Ratings on a scale

28  Intense examination of a very specific group or type of people  Brain injuries  Psychological disorders

29  Questionnaires  Surveys  Disadvantages  Bias  Never return surveys  Advantages  Easily administered  Mailed out  Gather data from a large amount of people

30  Hypothesis: Being observed can lead participants to change their behavior  Independent Variables – pay incentives, break schedules  Dependent Variable – speed of production  RESULTS – Workers’ productivity increased when they were being observed, regardless of the change in the IV  CONCLUSION: Being observed can lead participants to change their behavior because people act in particular ways to make positive impressions

31 Ensure participants well being

32  Strict guidelines  Review all research proposals  Make sure it meets scientific standards  Must take into consideration ethical and safety concerns  Well being of the participants

33  Privacy  Names are never published  Access to data  Only the researcher and his/her team  Informed consent  Overview in writing  Give relevant information  Have the right to know what they will experience  Acknowledge their participation  Signature on the form

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