Presentation on theme: "The Need for Scientific Methodology The Characteristics of Modern Science The Objectives of Psychological Science The Tools of Psychological Science Scientific."— Presentation transcript:
The Need for Scientific Methodology The Characteristics of Modern Science The Objectives of Psychological Science The Tools of Psychological Science Scientific Explanation in Psychological Science The Organization of the Text
How are science, methodology, and data interrelated? The Need for Scientific Methodology Science connotes content and process. Methodology consists of the scientific techniques we use to collect and evaluate data. Data are the facts we gather using scientific methods.
What is commonsense psychology? The Need for Scientific Methodology Heider called nonscientific data gathering commonsense psychology. This approach uses nonscientific sources of data and nonscientific inference. An everyday example is believing that “opposites attract.”
Explain nonscientific inference. The Need for Scientific Methodology Nonscientific inference is the nonscientific use of information to explain or predict behavior. The gambler’s fallacy, overuse of trait explanations, stereotyping, and overconfidence bias illustrate this problem.
What is the gambler’s fallacy? The Need for Scientific Methodology In the gambler’s fallacy, people misuse data to estimate the probability of an event, like when a slot machine will pay off.
Why is the overuse of trait explanations a problem? The Need for Scientific Methodology When we overuse trait explanations to explain others' behavior, we often make unwarranted dispositional attributions and underuse situational information. This bias can reduce the accuracy of our explanations and predictions.
How can stereotyping mislead us? The Need for Scientific Methodology In stereotyping, we falsely assume that specific behaviors cluster together. For example, since Imei is a Chinese-American student, she must study 10 hours a day and excel at math. In reality, she failed calculus. Stereotypes ignore individual differences.
Why is overconfidence bias a problem? The Need for Scientific Methodology In overconfidence bias, we feel more confident about our conclusions than is warranted by available data. This form of nonscientific inference can result in erroneous conclusions when we don’t recognize the limitations of supporting data.
Why is the scientific mentality important? The Characteristics of Modern Science Alfred North Whitehead’s scientific mentality assumes that behavior follows a natural order and can be predicted. This assumption is essential to science. There is no point to using the scientific method to gather and analyze data if there is no implicit order.
What makes data empirical? The Characteristics of Modern Science Data are empirical when observed or experienced. Galileo’s empirical approach was superior to Aristotle’s commonsense method. Galileo correctly concluded that light objects fall as rapidly as heavy ones in a vacuum.
What is a law? The Characteristics of Modern Science A law consists of statements generally expressed as equations with few variables that have overwhelming empirical support. Laws, like the Laws of Thermodynamics, are useful in the physical sciences.
What is a theory? The Characteristics of Modern Science A theory is an interim explanation; a set of related statements used explain and predict phenomena. Theories integrate diverse data, explain behavior, and predict new instances of behavior.
What is good thinking and why is it important? The Characteristics of Modern Science Good thinking is critical to the scientific method. We engage in good thinking when data collection and interpretation are systematic, objective, and rational.
What is parsimony? The Characteristics of Modern Science The principle of parsimony is that we prefer the simplest useful explanation. For example, Crandall (1988) showed that a social contagion model of bulimia was more parsimonious than competing explanations.
How did Sir Karl Popper believe that science advances? The Characteristics of Modern Science Sir Karl Popper proposed that science advances by revising theories based on the “weight of evidence.” Science is self-correcting as scientific explanations and theories are challenged, and revised or replaced.
What role does the principle of modus tollens play in science? The Characteristics of Modern Science The principle of modus tollens allows us to disprove statements using a single, contrary observation. We can never prove a statement because a contradictory observation might be found later.
How does replication advance science? The Characteristics of Modern Science Replication is an exact or systematic repetition of a study. Replication increases our confidence in experimental results by adding to the weight of supporting evidence.
What are the four main objectives of science? The Objectives of Psychological Science The four main objectives of science are: description prediction explanation control
What are the four main objectives of science? The Objectives of Psychological Science Description is a systematic and unbiased account of observed characteristics of behaviors. Prediction is the capability of knowing in advance when certain behaviors should occur. Explanation is knowledge of the conditions that reliably produce a behavior.
What are the four main objectives of science? The Objectives of Psychological Science Control is the use of scientific knowledge to influence behavior.
How does applied research differ from basic research? The Objectives of Psychological Science Applied research addresses real-world problems like how to improve student graduation rates. Basic research tests theories and explains psychological phenomena like helping behavior.
What are the main tools of psychological science? The Tools of Psychological Science The main tools of psychological science are: observation measurement experimentation
What are the main tools of psychological science? The Tools of Psychological Science Observation is the systematic noting and recording of events. Systematic means that the procedures are consistently applied. The events or their signs must be observable. Observations must be objective so that there can be strong agreement among raters.
What are the main tools of psychological science? The Tools of Psychological Science Measurement assigns numbers to objects, events, or their characteristics. This is an inherent feature of quantitative research. Baron and colleagues (1985) measured anger and depression using numerical scales.
What are the main tools of psychological science? The Tools of Psychological Science Experimentation is the process we use to test the predictions we call hypotheses and establish cause-and-effect relationships. Experimentation is not always possible because our predictions must be testable.
What are the requirements for an experiment? The Tools of Psychological Science We must be able to manipulate the independent variable and measure its effect on the dependent variable. Ethical concerns or technological limitations may prevent experimentation.
What are the requirements for an experiment? Scientific Explanation An experiment requires that we create at least two treatment conditions and randomly assign subjects to these conditions. In psychology experiments, we control extraneous variables so we that we can measure “what we intend to measure.”
How does an experiment establish cause and effect? Scientific Explanation An experiment attempts to establish a cause- and-effect relationship between the antecedent conditions (IV) and subject behavior (DV). Experiments establish a temporal relationship, because causes must precede effects. However, not all prior events are causes.
What are pseudosciences? Scientific Explanation A pseudoscience is any field of study that gives the appearance of being scientific, but has no true scientific basis and has not been confirmed using the scientific method. Modern pseudosciences include past life regression, reparenting, and rebirthing.