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Change Management Stephen Njuguna

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1 Change Management Stephen Njuguna

2 Change Management Change can be defined as a transition from one state to another with focus on being different. Change management is the use of systematic methods to ensure that an organization change can be guided in the planned direction conducted in a cost effective manner and completed within the targeted time frame and with the desired results. the approach to plan, design, implement, manage, measure and sustain changes in business process and work Coping process of moving from a unsatisfactory present state to a desired state STEPHEN NJUGUNA

3 Types of Organizational Change
Anticipatory changes: planned changes based on expected situations. Reactive changes: changes made in response to unexpected situations. Incremental changes: subsystem adjustments required to keep the organization on course. Strategic changes: altering the overall shape or direction of the organization. STEPHEN NJUGUNA

4 Strategic change Strategic change is one that involves fundamental changes in the business of the organization and its future direction. Organizations have to change to align themselves to changes in their environments. Purpose of strategic change is to ensure that organization is heading in the right direction (effectiveness), STEPHEN NJUGUNA

Change in organization has two critical dimensions: Business dimension People dimension STEPHEN NJUGUNA

Business change elements include: The need for change – Why is the change necessary? The change strategy (scope and objectives) – what will it involve and how will it happen? Implementation – who will be involved and what will they do? Post implementation – how will the change be evaluated? STEPHEN NJUGUNA

7 Scale – what aspects of the organization is affected.
Areas of concern: Scale – what aspects of the organization is affected. Magnitude – how significant are the alterations to status –quo Duration – how long will it last Strategic importance- how much will it be a departure from the current business STEPHEN NJUGUNA

This involves the alignment of the organization’s culture, values, people, and behaviours to encourage the desired results. The people dimension of change is how employees experience the change process. Helping employees cope with change is one of the most critical success factors in change management. STEPHEN NJUGUNA

9 This involves addressing concerns like:
People Dimension Change leadership must ensure that they fully address the human side of change, otherwise their best laid plans may fail. This involves addressing concerns like: involvement – of all levels in the organization Ownership – ensuring all “own” the change Communication – right info and right timing. Culture – cultural diagnosis to assess organizational readiness. STEPHEN NJUGUNA

10 ADKAR MODEL Effective management of people dimension of change requires managing five key phases: ADKAR model AWARENESS DESIRE KNOWLEDGE ABILITY REINFORCEMENT STEPHEN NJUGUNA

11 Awareness of the need for change (“why change if its working?”
How do you go about creating the awareness for change? STEPHEN NJUGUNA

12 Desire Desire to participate and support the change. Once aware, people need to know how change will affect them, what is expected of them, how soon it will happen etc. Once an individual has an understanding of why a change is needed (Awareness), the next step in successful change is making a personal decision to support and participate in the change. STEPHEN NJUGUNA

13 Cont…….. Many practitioners say that desire is the most difficult of the five building blocks to achieve. Desire is difficult because it is ultimately a personal decision that is not under our direct control. The actions and words of managers and executive leaders have a tremendous influence on an employee’s desire to support a business change. While there are certainly ways to try and influence a person's decision to get "on board" with a change, in the end individuals must make this decision themselves. STEPHEN NJUGUNA

14 Cont…… Understanding the underlying factors that influence an individual’s desire to change is an important first step to achieve this element of the ADKAR model. What are the specific strategies that we can employ to create the desire in people to support and participate in the change process? STEPHEN NJUGUNA

15 Knowledge Knowledge of how to change. People need to know what’s in it for them, how they are expected to change etc How do you facilitate people to acquire the relevant knowledge for them to sail through change? STEPHEN NJUGUNA

16 Ability Ability to implement the change on a day –to-day basis. People need to be enabled to act and behave as expected in the new situation. How do you empower the people to perform as expected? STEPHEN NJUGUNA

17 Reinforcement Reinforcement to keep the change in place. Need motivation to keep the newly acquired behaviour going including rewarding performance, encouragement, recognition etc How do you reinforce the change? STEPHEN NJUGUNA

18 Four principles of change management
Urgency Vision Empowering Execution STEPHEN NJUGUNA

19 Changing customers Changing competition Changing environment
URGENCY What causes the urgency? Changing customers Changing competition Changing environment Changing technology Benchmarks STEPHEN NJUGUNA

20 Vision Clear and concise Built around customers Inspirational
Characteristics of a vision Clear and concise Built around customers Inspirational Widely shared Linked with daily behaviour Created participatively STEPHEN NJUGUNA

21 EMPOWERMENT Need to empower people in organization because:
People need capability to do their jobs They need to know the consequences of their actions and that they will be held accountable for their actions. Need clarity of vision. People need control over how they will contribute to getting there. STEPHEN NJUGUNA

22 Technical and team skills Training Hire new skills
Cont….. Developing organizational capability to handle change through: Technical and team skills Training Hire new skills Frequent re-orientation STEPHEN NJUGUNA

23 EXECUTION Align systems Align the structures around customers
To execute effectively you need: Align systems Align the structures around customers Develop self directed work teams Use training as a leverage activity STEPHEN NJUGUNA

24 SUMMARY Urgency defines why we must do something
Vision describes where to go Empowerment tells us who will be accountable Execution tells us how to accomplish the vision. STEPHEN NJUGUNA








32 Why people resist change
Surprise Unannounced significant changes threaten employees’ sense of balance in the workplace. Inertia Employees have a desire to maintain a safe, secure, and predictable status quo. Misunderstanding/Ignorance/Lack of Skills Without introductory or remedial training, change may be perceived negatively. STEPHEN NJUGUNA

33 Why people resist change
Emotional Side Effects Forced acceptance of change can create a sense of powerlessness, anger, and passive resistance to change. Lack of Trust Promises of improvement mean nothing if employees do not trust management. Fear of Failure Employees are intimidated by change and doubt their abilities to meet new challenges. STEPHEN NJUGUNA

34 Why people resist change
Personality Conflicts Managers who are disliked by their employees are poor conduits for change. Poor Timing Other events can conspire to create resentment about a particular change. Lack of Tact Not showing sensitivity to feelings can create resistance to change. STEPHEN NJUGUNA

35 Why people resist change
Threat to Job Status/Security Employees worry that change threatens their job or security. Breakup of Work Group Changes can tear apart established on-the-job social relationships. Passive-Aggressive Organizational Culture The more things change, the more they stay the same. Competing Commitments Change can disrupt employees in their pursuit of other goals. STEPHEN NJUGUNA

36 Strategies for Overcoming Resistance to Change
Education and communication Participation and involvement Facilitation and support Negotiation and agreement Manipulation and co-optation Explicit and implicit coercion STEPHEN NJUGUNA



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