2 The Nature of Motivation The psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence
3 The Nature of Motivation Directionpossible behaviors the individual could engage inEfforthow hard the individual will workPersistencewhether the individual will keep trying or give up
4 The Nature of Motivation Intrinsically Motivated BehaviorBehavior that is performed for its own sakeExtrinsically Motivated BehaviorBehavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishmentProsocially motivated behaviorbehavior performed to benefit or help othersIntrinsically Motivated BehaviorBehavior that is performed for its own sake.The source of the motivation that comes from actually engaging in the behavior.The sense of accomplishment and achievement derived from doing the work itselfExtrinsically Motivated BehaviorBehavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment.The source of the motivation is the consequences of the behavior and not the behavior itself.
5 The Nature of Motivation OutcomeAnything a person gets from a job or an organizationPay, job security, autonomy, accomplishmentInputAnything a person contributes to his or her job or organizationTime, effort, skills, knowledge, work behaviors
7 Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory The theory that motivation will be high when workers believe that high levels of effort lead to high performance and high performance leads to the attainment of desired outcomes.
8 Expectancy Theory Expectancy Instrumentality Valence the belief that effort (input) will result in a certain level of performanceInstrumentalitythe belief that performance results in the attainment of outcomesValencehow desirable each of the available outcomes from the job is to a personExpectancy: Effort will result in a level of performance.Employees will work hard if they believe they can attain high performance—organizations must provide the resources that support performance.Instrumentality: Performance leads to outcomes.Workers are only motivated if they think performance leads to an outcome—managers must link performance to outcomes.Valence: How desirable an outcome is to a person.Workers have preferences for outcomes—managers must determine which outcomes are valued.
9 Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence Figure 9.2
11 Need Theories Need Theories Theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needsBasis premise is that people are motivated to obtain outcomes at work to satisfy their needs
12 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s hierarchy of needs An arrangement of five basic needs that, according to Maslow, motivate behavior.Maslow proposed that the lowest level of unmet needs is the prime motivator and that only one level ofneeds is motivational at a time.
13 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory A need theory that distinguishes between motivator needs (related to the nature of the work itself) and hygiene needs (related to the physical and psychological context in which the work is performed) and proposes that motivator needs must be met for motivation and job satisfaction to be high.Unsatisfied hygiene needs create dissatisfaction; satisfaction of hygiene needs does not lead to motivation or job satisfaction.
14 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Motivator needs relate to the nature of the work itself and how challenging it isHygiene needs are related to the physical and psychological context in which the work is performed
15 McClelland’s Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power Need for AchievementA strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellenceNeed for AffiliationExtent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having the people around him get along with each otherNeed for PowerExtent to which an individual desires to control or influence others
16 Equity Theory Equity Theory Equity Inequity A theory of motivation that focuses on people’s perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to their work inputs.EquityJustice, impartiality, and fairness to which all organizational members are entitledInequityLack of fairnessA relative outcome to input ratio comparison to oneself or to another person (referent) perceived as similar to oneself.Equity exists when a person perceives that their outcome/input ratio to be equal to the referent’s ratio.If the referent receives more outcomes, they should also give more inputs to achieve equity.
18 Equity Theory Underpayment inequity Overpayment inequity exists when a person perceives that his own outcome–input ratio is less than the ratio of a referent.Overpayment inequityexists when a person perceives that his own outcome–input ratio is greater than the ratio of a referent.
19 Goal Setting Theory Goal Setting Theory Focuses on identifying the types of goals that are effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and explaining why goals have these effectsConsiders how managers can ensure that workers focus their inputs in the direction of high performance and the achievement of organizational goals.
20 Learning Theories Learning Theories Learning Theories that focus on increasing employee motivation and performance by linking the outcomes that employees receive to the performance of desired behaviors and the attainment of goalsLearningA relatively permanent change in person’s knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience
21 Operant Conditioning Theory People learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences.Linking specific behaviors to the attainment of specific outcomes can motivate high performance and prevent behaviors that detract from organizational effectiveness.
22 Operant Conditioning Theory Positive ReinforcementGiving people outcomes they desire when they perform organizationally functional behaviorsNegative ReinforcementEliminating undesired outcomes when people perform organizationally functional behaviors
23 Operant Conditioning Theory ExtinctionCurtailing the performance of a dysfunctional behavior by eliminating whatever is reinforcing themPunishmentAdministering an undesired or negative consequence when dysfunctional behavior occurs
24 Social Learning Theory A theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by people’s thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other people’s behavior
25 Social Learning Theory Vicarious LearningLearning that occurs when a learner is motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person perform and be reinforced for doing soAlso called Observational LearningSelf-ReinforcementAny desired or attractive outcome or award that a person can give himself or herself for good performanceSelf-efficacyA person’s belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfullyPeople are motivated to imitate models who are highly competent, expert, receive attractive reinforcers, and are friendly or approachable.
26 Pay and Motivation Pay as a Motivator Expectancy: Instrumentality, the association between performance and outcomes, must be high for motivation to be high.Need Theory: pay is used to satisfy many needs.Equity Theory: pay is given in relation to inputsGoal Setting Theory: pay is linked to attainment of goals.Learning Theory: outcomes (pay), is distributed upon performance of functional behaviors.
27 Merit Pay and Performance Merit Pay PlanA compensation plan that bases pay on performance