Presentation on theme: "It all begins with CORK in 1665. 10 years later, Anton van Leeuwenhoek viewed pond water under a microscope and discovered many tiny, living creatures."— Presentation transcript:
2 Major Categories of Cells EUKARYOTES ◦ The first cells with internal compartments. ◦ Evolved about 2.5 billion years ago. ◦ Eukaryotes include plants and animals and have a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles.
Genetic material (DNA or RNA) is a single circular molecule. This loop is located near the center of the cell.
Prokaryote Structures Cell Membrane (Cytoplasmic Membrane) that allows certain materials in/out of the cell.
Prokaryote Structures There is a cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane, providing structure and support.
Prokaryote Structures They lack the internal supporting skeleton, so they depend on a strong cell wall to give the cell shape.
Prokaryote Structures Some have flagella, long threadlike structures that protrude from the cell’s surface and enable movement.
Prokaryote Structures Some may have cilia for movement.
Prokaryote Structures Ribosomes to make proteins.
Prokaryotes are BACTERIA. Prokaryotes have NO nucleus. PRO rhymes with NO….NO NUCLEUS! Prokaryotes have CELL WALLS.
EUKARYOTE – an organism whose cells have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. COMPARTMENTALIZATION Compartmentalization allows for specialization.
EUKARYOTES Eukaryotes include Plants and Animals.
EUKARYOTES EU rhymes with Do….Eukaryotes DO HAVE A NUCLEUS!
Cell wall – only in plants. Composed of proteins and carbohydrates, including cellulose, it helps support and maintain the shape of the cell, protects it from damage, and connects it with adjacent cells.
Eukaryote Organelles Chloroplast – only in plants. Organelles that use light energy to make carbohydrates from CO 2 and H 2 O.
Eukaryote Organelles Central Vacuole – only in plants. Stores water. When the central vacuole is full, it makes the cell rigid, which enables the plant to stand upright.
EUKARYOTES Cytoplasm – includes everything inside the cell membrane, but outside the nucleus.
EUKARYOTES Flagella and Cilia – only in some animal cells. Both are used for movement. Flagella is like a long tail. Cilia are short, hair like structures.
EUKARYOTES Cytoskeleton – provides the internal support for animal cells, much like a human skeleton.
EUKARYOTES Cell Membrane – a fluid barrier separating the inside from the outside of the cell. This barrier allows only certain substances into the cell and out of the cell.
EUKARYOTES Nucleus – contains DNA. It is like the brain of the cell and regulates the cells functions.
EUKARYOTES Nucleolus – small dense region in the center of the nucleus that puts together ribosomes.
EUKARYOTES Endoplasmic Reticulum – the highways system of the cell that transports proteins. If it has ribosomes stuck to it, its known as rough E.R. If it does not have ribosomes stuck to it, it is known as smooth E.R.
EUKARYOTES Golgi Apparatus – packaging and distribution center of the cell.
EUKARYOTES Lysosomes – digestion center of the cell.
EUKARYOTES Mitochondria – The powerhouse of the cell. By breaking down big molecules, the mitochondria makes ATP for the cell. ATP is energy!