Presentation on theme: "Why is the Periodic Table important to me? It organizes lots of information about all the known elements. What are the “known elements”? I’m glad you asked!"— Presentation transcript:
Why is the Periodic Table important to me? It organizes lots of information about all the known elements. What are the “known elements”? I’m glad you asked! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EgJv2ARBckA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EgJv2ARBckA
Pre-Periodic Table Chemistry … …was a mess!!! No organization of elements. Imagine going to a grocery store with no organization!! Difficult to find information. Chemistry didn’t make sense.
Dmitri Mendeleev: Father of the Table HOW HIS WORKED… Put elements in rows by weight. Put elements in columns by the way they reacted. SOME PROBLEMS… He left blank spaces for what he said were undiscovered elements. (Turned out he was right!) He put similar reacting elements together.
The Current Periodic Table The elements are put in rows by ATOMIC NUMBER!! The horizontal rows are called periods and are labeled from 1 to 7. –Identify atomic # 1 –Identify atomic # 8 –If these two elements combine in a chemical compound, what is the new substance called? The vertical columns are called groups/families are labeled from 1 to 18. –Identify atomic #11 –Identify atomic #19 –Why are these elements in the same group/family?
The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called PERIODS. Look at the atomic numbers of Period 5.
Groups…Here’s Where the Periodic Table Gets Useful!! Elements in the same group have similar chemical and physical properties!!
The vertical columns of the periodic table are called GROUPS, or FAMILIES. What family/group is shown here? The elements in any group of the periodic table have similar physical and chemical properties!
Families on the Periodic Table Columns are also grouped into families. –We have observed Hydrogen, 1, 2, and 8 Families may be one column, or several columns put together. –We have observed the Transition Elements Families have names (Just like your family has a common last name.)
Hydrogen – in a family all by itself Hydrogen belongs to a family of its own.. Hydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenberg. Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel source for automobiles aka. Fuel Cell Cars
Alkali Metals – this is Family 1’s NAME 1 st column on the periodic table (Group 1) not including hydrogen. Soft enough to cut with a butter knife Very reactive or volatile when exposed to moisture (aka. Water) Combined with something else in nature (like in salt, Na + Cl, NaCl ).
Soft metals Very reactive http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=uixxJtJPVXk&feature=rel atedhttp://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=uixxJtJPVXk&feature=rel ated The SOFT BUT REACTIVE family
Alkaline Earth Metals Second column on the periodic table. (Group 2) Fairly Reactive metals that are always combined with nonmetals in nature. (like in milk Ca + P + O, CaPO 4 Several of these elements are important mineral nutrients for our bodies (such as Mg, K, and Ca)
Transition Metals Elements in groups 3-12 Less reactive harder metals Includes metals used in jewelry and construction. Many have very LOW REACTIVITY which is why they are good for coins, nails, bolts, jewelry, bridges. Good thing bridges are not made from Sodium #11, huh?
InnerTransition Metals These elements are also called the rare-earth elements.
Boron Family Elements in group 13 Aluminum metal was once rare and expensive, not a “disposable metal.”
Carbon Family Elements in group 14 Contains elements important to life and computers. Carbon is the basis for an entire branch of chemistry. Silicon and Germanium are important semiconductors.
Nitrogen Family Elements in group 15 Nitrogen makes up over ¾ of the atmosphere. Nitrogen and phosphorus are both important in living things. Most of the world’s nitrogen is not available to living things. The red stuff on the tip of matches is phosphorus.
Oxygen Family or Chalcogens Elements in group 16 Oxygen is necessary for respiration. Many things that stink, contain sulfur (rotten eggs, garlic, skunks,etc.)
Halogens Elements in group 17 Very reactive, volatile, diatomic, nonmetals Always found combined with other element in nature. Used as disinfectants and to strengthen teeth.
Atoms of elements combine to make EVERYTHING …to make MATTER …to make all things that have MASS and VOLUME …aka. The AMOUNT OF SPACE something occupies …they are grouped by how they are alike http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jq37UQ-krW4&feature=related