Presentation on theme: "The Brain The four major parts of the brain (in order of highest to lowest functioning) the cerebrum higher thought processes the diencephalon integrative."— Presentation transcript:
1 The BrainThe four major parts of the brain (in order of highest to lowest functioning)the cerebrumhigher thought processesthe diencephalonintegrative functionsthe cerebellumreceives sensory and motor inputthe brain stemOldest part of brain (in terms of evolution)Reflex arcs: heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure
8 The Cerebrum The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain. It is the last center to receive sensory input and carry out integration before commanding voluntary motor responses.The cerebrum carries out the higher thought processes required for learning and memory and for language and speech.
9 The Cerebrum Cerebral Cortex Think layer of gray matter Sulci – groovesCentral SulcusSeparates frontal and parietal lobeGyrus – folds
10 The Cerebrum Primary Motor Area Primary Somatosensory area Located in the frontal lobeControls skeletal musclesEach body part is controlled by a certain sectionPrimary Somatosensory areaLocated in the parietal lobeSensory information from skin and muscles arrives
12 The Cerebrum Association Areas Cerebral Palsy Association areas are places where integration occursPre-motor areaOrganizes motor functions for skilled motor activitiesWalking and talkingCerebral PalsyMay be caused by O2 deprivation during birth which damages motor and association areas (may cause paralysis, spasms, lack of motor control)Pre-motor area sends signal to cerebellum which integrates it
13 The Cerebrum Processing Centers Processing centers of the cortex receive information from the other association areas and perform higher-level analytical functions.Wernicke’s Area: understand written and spoken languageBroca’s Area: speech muscle control
15 The DiencephalonThe hypothalamus and the thalamus are in the diencephalon.The hypothalamus is the integrating center that helps maintain homeostasis by regulating hunger, sleep, thirst, body temperature, and water balance.The thalamus integrates sensory input from the visual, auditory, taste, and somatosensory systems.The pineal gland is located in the diencephalon. It secretes the hormone melatonin which is responsible for normal body rhythms.Thalamus – sends it to the appropriate place in the cerebrum
17 The CerebellumThe cerebellum receives sensory input from the joints, muscles, and other sensory pathways about the present position of body parts.It also receives motor output from the cerebral cortex about where these parts should be located.The cerebellum maintains balance and posture.
19 The Brainstem The brain stem contains: Midbrain: relay station Pons: bundles of axons traveling b/t cerebellum and rest of brainmedulla oblongata: contains a number of reflex centers for regulating heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure.