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The Keys for Increasing Reading Comprehension

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Presentation on theme: "The Keys for Increasing Reading Comprehension"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Keys for Increasing Reading Comprehension

2 What Good Readers Do Question the text, then search for answers
Clarify unknown words or concepts, Summarize chunks of text while reading Make Predictions, then confirm or change predictions Make inferences Use context cues, text aids, graphics Re-read unclear passages Visualize what they are reading Connect text to prior knowledge and previously read sections Understand purpose of text

3 Norms for Reciprocal Reading Groups
Everybody helps Give reasons for your suggestions No one is finished until everyone is finished You have the right to ask for help You have the duty to offer help You have the duty to play your role

4 Whole-Class Practice Teacher leads the whole class in silently reading together a segment of text Students then question the teacher about the content After a subsequent segment of text is read, the teacher questions the students As the questioning process continues, students learn to imitate the teacher's questioning behavior.

5 Cooperative Reading Groups
Students will be separated into groups by the teacher. Each student will be assigned a role to fulfill to increase each member’s understanding of the significance of the reading.

6 Questioning Role: Identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for questions and then pose 4-5 such questions. Begin asking questions as soon as the Summarizer posts a summary.  How to ask good questions: Use the 5 Ws + H questions Use higher order questions: Why is _______ significant? Why does _______ happen? How do _______ and _______ compare? Contrast? What is most important?

7 Types of Questioning On-the-Surface Questions: (Who…What…Where….When….) Involve summarizing, paraphrasing, literal retelling Inquire about what happens and what the text says One right answer found in the text, (more or less) (Some of these questions may begin with Why, How, Should, Could, Would.)

8 Types of Questioning con’t
Under-the-Surface Questions: (Why….How….Should….Could….Would…) Generally have more than one right answer; not “point-able” in text; not explicit Usually require one or more of the following: Further research Filling in gaps, making inferences, “reading between the lines” Predicting, speculating, asking what the text means Asking about author’s purpose, message, moral, Hypothesizing, evaluating, Challenging the text, stating opinions Connecting the text to self or knowledge of the world, extending beyond the text into reader’s own experience

9 Who? Where? What? When? 1. Fill in information from the reading to answer the questions on each branch. 2. Formulate other questions from these and other info in the reading. 3. Form several under-the-surface questions.

10 Questioning Chart Text Summaries Questions answered in Text

11 Summarizing Role Assume the role of summarizer and tell the group the important ideas and the supporting details from the section read. As summarizer, you are allowed look-backs initially but must eventually develop the skill of summarizing without reference to the text. How to do a summary: look for topic sentences look for who, what, when, where, why, and how omit unnecessary information

12 Summarizing con’t Summary-type statements:
this story/paragraph is mostly about It includes information about The topic of this paragraph is The author is trying to tell us that This story/passage about _______ begins with _______, discusses (or develops) the idea that ______, and ends with_____.

13 Summarizing Practice Chart
Generate master list of lines from class recounting events of text. Write down everything that they think is important. Assign letters or numbers. Ask students to cut them down in half. Leave-in Leave-out use criteria of: Importance to Plot, Character, Cause and Effect, Truth or Fact determine that the information is: irrelevant, dead-end, opinion, or a repeat.

14 Key-Lines Choose the most important sentence in a portion of the text, or each paragraph, and give or write evidence for why they chose those lines

15 Clarifying Role: Your job is to help clarify any information from the text, the summary and the questions that your group may not understand. Lack of understanding may result from lack of clarity in the text, summaries and/or questions, unknown words or phrases, insufficient background knowledge, as well as lack of connections among ideas in both the text and the summaries. Ask your clarifying questions and suggest helpful strategies as soon as the Questioner finishes asking questions and the members have finished answering them (about 15 minutes into the round).

16 Clarifying con’t How to help clarify:
identify areas where understanding is still weak propose strategies to address lack of understanding model strategic thinking for the group Clarifying statements: I don't really understand A question I have is _______ One word or phrase I don't understand is We can reread this section Let's see if we can find a context clue

17 Vocab-U-Share Term “My Definition” Actual Definition

18 Predicting Role You will predict, based on what has already been read, what information will be covered in the upcoming section of text as well as how the ideas may connect with what has already been read. As predictor, preview upcoming text, determine important ideas and their relationships among one another, and then offer a prediction to the team (5 minutes maximum). How to predict: look at titles and subtitles read the first sentence or two of the upcoming section resummarize main points before going on

19 Predicting con’t Predicting statements:
Based on the title/subtitle, I predict this is going to be about I already know these things about the story/topic Based on (a clue), I predict _______ Based on what _______, said/did, I predict _________

20 Prediction Practice Prediction/Hypothesis Textual Evidence

21 Picture Uncover Gradually uncover a picture on the overhead
Have students make predictions, based on evidence, what it’s about Confirm or change predictions as more pieces are uncovered


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