Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Digestive System. Organ groups of digestion Alimentary organs – Mouth – Pharynx – Esophagus – Stomach – Small and large intestine Accessory digestive.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Digestive System. Organ groups of digestion Alimentary organs – Mouth – Pharynx – Esophagus – Stomach – Small and large intestine Accessory digestive."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Digestive System

2 Organ groups of digestion Alimentary organs – Mouth – Pharynx – Esophagus – Stomach – Small and large intestine Accessory digestive organs – Teeth and tongue – Liver – Pancreas – Salivary glands – gallbladder

3 The processes of digestion Ingestion Secretion Mixing and propulsion Mechanical and chemical digestion Absorption Defecation

4 Peristalsis and segmentation Peristalsis

5 Layers of the GI tract Mucosa – Layer of epithelium – Lamina propria (connective tissue) – Thin layer of smooth muscle (muscularis mucosae) Submucosa Muscularis Serosa

6 ANS input Vagus nerve supplies parasympathetic input to most parts of the GI tract. Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons synapse on postsynaptic neurons in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses. Parasympathetic stimulation increases motility and GI secretion. Sympathetic postsynaptic neurons in the plexuses decrease GI section and decrease motility by inhibiting neurons of ENS



9 Mouth Buccal cavity Oral mucosa Vestibule Gingivae Hardpalate Soft palate Uvula

10 Salivary glands Cleanse mouth Dissolve food chemicals Moisten food Enzymes break down carbs

11 Teeth Crown, neck and root Peridontal ligament Enamel Dentin Root canal

12 Tooth varieties Incisors Cuspids Bicuspids Molars Mastication Bolus

13 Tongue

14 Swallowing Deglutition 3 phases – Buccal – Pharyngeal – Esophogeal Peristalsis – Secondary peristaltic waves

15 Deglutition

16 Stomach Fundus Body Pylorus – Pyloric sphincter Rugae

17 Stomach histology

18 Gastric Glands Mucous cells – Surface & neck G cells Parietal cells Chief cells Enteroendocrine cells

19 Stomach and chemical digestion Cephalic (Reflex) phase – Triggered by sensory signals surrounding food. – Activates vagal nerve and ANS to enhance secretions – Hydrochloric Acid Production in Parietal Cells Hydrochloric Acid Production in Parietal Cells

20 Stomach and chemical digestion Gastric Phase – Activation of local myeteric reflexes and vagovagal reflexes – Gastrin – Release of HCl from parietal cells

21 Stomach and chemical digestion Intestinal Phase – Excitatory component – Inhibitory component

22 Gastric Secretion: 3 Phases

23 Stomach and mechanical digestion Stomach filling Contractile activity – Peristalsis Gastric emptying

24 Small intestine and associated organs

25 Small intestine histology


27 Liver Digestive function is to produce bile. Metabolic function is to process venous blood from digestive tract Functional unit is a lobule

28 Liver

29 Liver Functions Carbohydrate metabolism Lipid metabolism Protein metabolism Processing of drugs and hormones Excretion of bilirubin Synthesis of bile salts Storage Phagocytosis Activation of vitamin D

30 Cholesterol

31 Accessory organs

32 Bile Alkaline solution that includes bile salts, phospholipids and electrolytes. – Bile salts derived from cholesterol Bile salts emulsify fats and solubilize cholesterol, increasing absorption. Bile is recycled Fatty chyme and bile returning to liver stimulates more production of bile.

33 Gallbladder The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. Bile release into duodenum 1.Fatty chyme stimulates release of CKK and secretin. 2.CKK enters bloodstream 3.Bile salts and secretin in the blood stimulate liver to rapidly produce bile. 4.Vagal stimulation leads to weak contractions. 5.CKK causes gallbladder to contract and the hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax; bile enters duodenum

34 Pancreatic juice Insulin & Glucose Regulation Insulin & Glucose Regulation



37 Digestion in Small intestine: chemical Digestion of carbohydrates – Pancreatic amylase – Brush-border enzymes Digestion of proteins – Enzymes from pancreatic juice – Brush-border peptidases releases single AAs Digestion of lipids – Digestion & Absorption of Fats Digestion & Absorption of Fats Digestion of nucleic acids




41 Digestion in Small intestine: mechanical Segmentation leads to chyme being moved backwards and forwards. Parasympathetic input increases intensity of contractions; sympathetic input decreases intensity. Peristalsis occurs after nutrients are absorbed; regulated by motilin. – Migrating motility complex Movement through ileocecal sphincter is enhanced by gastrin. Once meal has passed through sphincter back pressure keeps the valve closed



44 Water Water moves in both directions and follows flow of electrolyhtes

45 Large intestine (5 ft) Mechanical digestion— haustral churning, peristalsis, mass peristalsis Chemical digestion Absorption Feces formation Reflexes in the Colon Reflexes in the Colon

46 Ulcerative Colitis

47 Defecation reflex Mass peristaltic movements Voluntary contractions of diaphragm and abdominals Parasympathetic input Voluntary input

48 Resources Human Digestion Heart Burn Video Peristalsis Animation Digestive System

Download ppt "The Digestive System. Organ groups of digestion Alimentary organs – Mouth – Pharynx – Esophagus – Stomach – Small and large intestine Accessory digestive."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google