Presentation on theme: "The Tax System Chapter 12. What Are Taxes and When Do You Have to Pay Them? Taxes are payments to local, state or national governments. They are the government’s."— Presentation transcript:
What Are Taxes and When Do You Have to Pay Them? Taxes are payments to local, state or national governments. They are the government’s revenue or income. Taxes are paid when you buy goods and services. Taxes are paid when you earn income. Taxes are paid when you own property.
Who pays taxes? Individuals Businesses Foreign businesses
Why taxes? Pay for government services Pay for government goods Pay for government transfer payments Provide for economic stability
What are the consequences of not paying taxes? Fines & interest payments Loss of property Jail term Government unable to provide for our needs
What kinds of taxes are there? Personal Income tax FICA – (Federal Income Contribution Act) – Social Security – Medicare Sales tax Property tax Excise tax – tax on the supplier (usually included in the price) Tariffs – taxes on imported goods Corporate income tax
“In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes.”... Benjamin Franklin 0 20 40 60 80 100 1789 Taxes paid in Ben Franklin’s time accounted for 5 percent of the average American’s income.
“In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes.”... Benjamin Franklin 0 20 40 60 80 100 1789Today Today, taxes account for up to a third of the average American’s income.
Federal spending falls under two categories – Mandatory & Discretionary – Mandatory spending is spending on existing programs as required by law (61%) Most mandatory spending is on entitlements -social programs people are entitled to if they meet certain eligibility requirements. (55%) – Social Security, Medicare (46%) – Medicaid (25%) – Income Security (food stamps, TANF, unemployment (21%) – Other retirement and disability programs (8%) Interest payment on the debt makes up the remainder (6%)
– National defense and veteran’s programs (51%) – Foreign aide (3%) – Other spending (46% =.18 of each federal dollar spent) Education Research Student loans National parks and monuments Environmental cleanup Federal courts and prisons zDiscretionary spending is spending about which government planners can make choices (39%)
Local Sources of Revenue Local governments receive 38% of their revenue from the state or federal government
State Spending Categories Health 29% Welfare 18 % Education 17% Pensions 11% Transportation 7% All others 17%
Local Spending Categories Education 38% Police & Fire 11% Transportation 8% Health 8% All others 35%
Individual Income Taxes u When evaluating equity and efficiency of taxes economists distinguish between marginal and average tax rates. u The marginal tax rate is the tax rate applied to each additional dollar of income.
Average Tax Rates are your total taxes divided by your total income If your income is between $8, 351 and $33,950 your marginal rate is 15%, but your average tax rate would be less than 13.7%
Paying Income Tax Add up your deposit column on your current check register. Add this amount to your previous income totals. This is your TOTAL INCOME Complete the 1040EZ tax return by following the directions on the form itself. Write a check for the amount owed – payable to the IRS. Attach check to 1040EZ along with income totals. Before turning in calculate your average tax rate (taxes paid/total income)______________________ How does that compare to the marginal tax rate for your income on this page?
If government spending exceeds government revenue (taxes) within one year it is called deficit spending If government revenue exceeds government spending within one year it is called a budget surplus Government Debt and Deficits
The Total Deficit or Surplus 1969 to 2016 2010 Projected deficit is $1.17 trillion.
The US Federal Budget, in surplus only a few years ago, has dropped dramatically back into deficit. Recent budget deficits have broken all previous records. has dropped dramatically back into deficit
The Federal Debt is the total of all budget deficits and budget surpluses in our history. http://www.usdebtclock.org/ http://www.usdebtclock.org/
Most state and local governments require a balanced budget-revenues must equal expenditures for their operating budgets. Money In equals Money Out Governments may borrow to pay for building projects (capital budget).
State and Local governments divide spending between two different budgets. Operating budget: pays for day to day expenses -salaries, supplies, maintenance. These expenses are paid for with taxes. Capital budget: pays for major capital, or investment, spending - roads, buildings, bridges. These expenses are paid for by borrowing (bond sales). State & Local Spending