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United States v. Soviet Union

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1 United States v. Soviet Union
The Cold War United States v. Soviet Union

2 The U. S. & the U. S. S. R. Emerged as the Two Superpowers of the later 20c

3 Class work Directions: Using the maps on page 849 in your textbook and the map that follows, label the Europe after World War II map. Label: Communist Countries Non-Communist Countries Iron Curtain NATO Countries Warsaw Pact Countries


5 Beginning of Cold War The Cold War was an economic and political power struggle from Following World War II, Soviet forces occupied much of Eastern and Central Europe and East Germany. Following World War II, Germany was divided as follows: A. West Germany was occupied by United States, Great Britain, and France until the adoption of democracy

6 Beginning of Cold War B. East Germany was dominated by the Soviet Union. Berlin was occupied by all Four powers. The United States organized the Berlin Airlift to bring supplies to Berlin when the Soviets blockaded routes from West Germany to West Berlin. Following World War II, Japan was occupied by the United States until the adoption of democracy.

7 The Division of Germany: 1945 - 1990
Post WW II: 4 zones created West Germany US, Great Britain, France East Germany: Soviet Union Berlin: German capital split into eastern & western halves

8 Berlin Airlift: U.S. response to Soviet blockade
U.S. and Allies flew supplies to blockaded West Berlin for 10 months: 277,000 flights 2 million tons of supplies

9 Cold War In an attempt to prevent the spread of Communism in Europe, the Marshall Plan provided assistance to European countries destroyed by the war. The United Nations was formed near the end of World War II. Its purpose was to prevent future wars.

10 Marshall Plan: Economic plan to stop the spread of Communism in Europe
$$$ given to European countries to rebuild after the war.

11 Cold War The Cold War was an economic and political power struggle from between the democratic ideals of the United States and the communist government of the Soviet Union. The Truman Doctrine was a United States pledge to resist the spread of communism worldwide

12 Cold War:(1945-1989) Political & Economic Struggle
USA Politically: Democracy Economically: Capitalist Free Market USSR Politically: Communist Economically: Command Economy Quota System

13 Truman Doctrine U.S. pledge to resist the spread of communism worldwide Policy of Containment

14 The Dividing of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War
Soviet Union creates an Iron Curtain around Southern & Eastern Europe & East Germany Communist satellite governments established in Eastern European countries

15 Cold War The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Was formed to provide a defensive alliance to protect Western Europe against an invasion by the Soviet Union. The Warsaw Pact, an alliance of Soviet and East European countries, was a response to NATO. In 1949, the communists took over China. America feared the spread of communism.

16 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): Protect Western Europe vs Soviet invasion

17 Warsaw Pact, an alliance of Soviet and East European countries, was a response to NATO.

18 China: The Communist Victory
World’s largest population now Communist

19 Cold War The United States and the Soviet Union engaged in a nuclear arms race during the Cold War. Massive retaliation was a United States policy adopted during the Eisenhower administration. It threatened the use of nuclear weapons in response to Soviet aggression against another country.

20 Nuclear Arms Race: 1949 the Soviets build an A-Bomb

21 Massive Retaliation U.S. policy of the Eisenhower administration.
It threatened the use of nuclear weapons in response to Soviet aggression against another country.

22 Cold War continued Fear of communism and threat of nuclear war affected life in the United States during the Cold War. Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of spying. Senator Joseph McCarthy accused many Americans of spying. This is known as the Red Scare or McCarthyism. Foreign policy became a major issue in presidential campaigns.

23 Cold War @ Home: Red Scare & Nuclear Scare

24 Communist Spies & Second Red Scare
Spies in America: Alger Hiss & the Rosenberg’s (Julius & Ethel) convicted of spying America Paranoid that spies are everywhere

25 Communist Spies & Second Red Scare
HUAC: House Un-American Activities Committee created to investigate potential Communist spies Joseph McCarthy: Wisconsin senator gains popularity by publicly accusing people of being spies People were considered “guilty” until proven “innocent”

26 Korean War The United States became involved in the Korean War in 1950 when communist North Korea invaded South Korea. China entered the conflict on the side of North Korea. A truce was signed in Korea remained divided along the 38th parallel.

27 Korean War U.S. & UN involved in the Korean War in Communist North Korea invaded South Korea. China entered on side of North Korea Korea remained divided at 38th parallel


29 Cuba Cuba is located 90 miles south of the US.
The United States engaged in Cold-War-related confrontations with Cuba. In 1959, Fidel Castro took over Cuba in a communist revolution. The United States trained a group of Cubans to invade Cuba. The Bay of Pigs invasion took place in 1961 and failed.

30 Cuba Located 90 miles from Florida
1959: Fidel Castro took over in a communist revolution

31 Bay of Pigs (1961) U.S. trained Cuban rebels invade Cuba & attempt to overthrow Castro. IT FAILED US begins trade embargo on Cuba (it still exists today)

32 Cuba In 1962, the Soviet Union began to build missile launchers in Cuba. The United States protested, and for several days, the world worried that a nuclear war would erupt. The Soviet Union decided to remove the missiles. This event is known as the Cuban Missile Crisis.

33 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962): 13 days in October
JFK President Issue: Soviet missiles in Cuba US Response: Protests then a naval blockade to prevent Soviet ships from reaching Cuba Soviet Response: Respect the naval blockade and remove missiles in Cuba (US would later remove Nukes from Turkey)


35 Cold War continued Cold War military contracts benefited Virginia’s economy. President Kennedy’s inaugural address became famous for this quote: “ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” Many Americans served in the military during the Cold War; the United States prevailed over the Soviet Union. President Kennedy was assassinated in 1963.

36 John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) Assassinated in Dallas, Texas in 1963
“Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country!”

37 Vietnam War The United States began providing economic aid to the French in Vietnam as part of the American policy of containment. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, communist North Vietnam attempted to force a communist government in South Vietnam. The United States provided assistance to South Vietnam. United States military buildup in Vietnam increased during the administrations of Kennedy and Johnson

38 Vietnam War American military forces repeatedly defeated North Vietnam but were unable to force an end to the war through a limited war. America became divided over the Vietnam War. War protests took place, especially on college campuses. President Johnson decided not to run for re-election. Richard Nixon was elected president in 1968.

39 Vietnam War “Vietnamization” was Nixon’s plan to withdraw American troops and replace them with U.S.-supplied South Vietnamese forces. It was unsuccessful because South Vietnamese forces were unable to resist invasion from Soviet-supplied North Vietnam. A peace agreement was signed in 1973, and United States troops left Vietnam. In 1975, North Vietnam invaded South Vietnam, which was unable to resist. Vietnam became a united country under a communist government.

40 Vietnam War Vietnam war veterans returned home to encounter much indifference and hostility. It was several years before Vietnam veterans were honored. Today, in Washington D.C. , they have the Vietnam War Veterans wall which lists the names of the fallen soldiers from that conflict

41 Cold War continued The Soviet Union’s Cold War military buildup took a toll on their command economy. Soviet Republics began to push for independence Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to save the Soviet Union through glasnost and perestroika.

42 End of the Cold War: The fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union economy collapsing Soviet republics push for independence Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev attempts to save the USSR Glasnost: Openness Perestroika: Economic Reforms Too little to late

43 Fall of Berlin Wall President Reagan demands the Soviets tear down the Berlin Wall Fall of Wall signals end of Cold War

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