Presentation on theme: "United States v. Soviet Union"— Presentation transcript:
1 United States v. Soviet Union The Cold WarUnited States v. Soviet Union
2 The U. S. & the U. S. S. R. Emerged as the Two Superpowers of the later 20c
3 Class workDirections: Using the maps on page 849 in your textbook and the map that follows, label the Europe after World War II map.Label:Communist CountriesNon-Communist CountriesIron CurtainNATO CountriesWarsaw Pact Countries
5 Beginning of Cold WarThe Cold War was an economic and political power struggle fromFollowing World War II, Soviet forces occupied much of Eastern and Central Europe and East Germany.Following World War II, Germany was divided as follows:A. West Germany was occupied by United States, Great Britain, and France until the adoption of democracy
6 Beginning of Cold WarB. East Germany was dominated by the Soviet Union.Berlin was occupied by all Four powers. The United States organized the Berlin Airlift to bring supplies to Berlin when the Soviets blockaded routes from West Germany to West Berlin.Following World War II, Japan was occupied by the United States until the adoption of democracy.
7 The Division of Germany: 1945 - 1990 Post WW II:4 zones createdWest GermanyUS, Great Britain, FranceEast Germany:Soviet UnionBerlin: German capital split into eastern & western halves
8 Berlin Airlift: U.S. response to Soviet blockade U.S. and Allies flew supplies to blockaded West Berlin for 10 months:277,000 flights2 million tons of supplies
9 Cold WarIn an attempt to prevent the spread of Communism in Europe, the Marshall Plan provided assistance to European countries destroyed by the war.The United Nations was formed near the end of World War II. Its purpose was to prevent future wars.
10 Marshall Plan: Economic plan to stop the spread of Communism in Europe $$$ given to European countries to rebuild after the war.
11 Cold WarThe Cold War was an economic and political power struggle from between the democratic ideals of the United States and the communist government of the Soviet Union.The Truman Doctrine was a United States pledge to resist the spread of communism worldwide
12 Cold War:(1945-1989) Political & Economic Struggle USAPolitically:DemocracyEconomically:CapitalistFree MarketUSSRPolitically:CommunistEconomically:Command EconomyQuota System
13 Truman DoctrineU.S. pledge to resist the spread of communism worldwidePolicy of Containment
14 The Dividing of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War Soviet Union creates an Iron Curtain around Southern & Eastern Europe & East GermanyCommunist satellite governments established in Eastern European countries
15 Cold War The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Was formed to provide a defensive alliance to protect Western Europe against an invasion by the Soviet Union.The Warsaw Pact, an alliance of Soviet and East European countries, was a response to NATO.In 1949, the communists took over China. America feared the spread of communism.
16 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): Protect Western Europe vs Soviet invasion
17 Warsaw Pact, an alliance of Soviet and East European countries, was a response to NATO.
18 China: The Communist Victory World’s largest population now Communist
19 Cold WarThe United States and the Soviet Union engaged in a nuclear arms race during the Cold War.Massive retaliation was a United States policy adopted during the Eisenhower administration. It threatened the use of nuclear weapons in response to Soviet aggression against another country.
20 Nuclear Arms Race: 1949 the Soviets build an A-Bomb
21 Massive Retaliation U.S. policy of the Eisenhower administration. It threatened the use of nuclear weapons in response to Soviet aggression against another country.
22 Cold War continuedFear of communism and threat of nuclear war affected life in the United States during the Cold War.Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of spying.Senator Joseph McCarthy accused many Americans of spying. This is known as the Red Scare or McCarthyism.Foreign policy became a major issue in presidential campaigns.
24 Communist Spies & Second Red Scare Spies in America:Alger Hiss & the Rosenberg’s (Julius & Ethel) convicted of spyingAmerica Paranoid that spies are everywhere
25 Communist Spies & Second Red Scare HUAC: House Un-American Activities Committee created to investigate potential Communist spiesJoseph McCarthy: Wisconsin senator gains popularity by publicly accusing people of being spiesPeople were considered “guilty” until proven “innocent”
26 Korean WarThe United States became involved in the Korean War in 1950 when communist North Korea invaded South Korea.China entered the conflict on the side of North Korea. A truce was signed in Korea remained divided along the 38th parallel.
27 Korean WarU.S. & UN involved in the Korean War in Communist North Korea invaded South Korea.China entered on side of North KoreaKorea remained divided at 38th parallel
29 Cuba Cuba is located 90 miles south of the US. The United States engaged in Cold-War-related confrontations with Cuba.In 1959, Fidel Castro took over Cuba in a communist revolution.The United States trained a group of Cubans to invade Cuba. The Bay of Pigs invasion took place in 1961 and failed.
30 Cuba Located 90 miles from Florida 1959: Fidel Castro took over in a communist revolution
31 Bay of Pigs (1961)U.S. trained Cuban rebels invade Cuba & attempt to overthrow Castro.IT FAILEDUS begins trade embargo on Cuba (it still exists today)
32 CubaIn 1962, the Soviet Union began to build missile launchers in Cuba. The United States protested, and for several days, the world worried that a nuclear war would erupt.The Soviet Union decided to remove the missiles. This event is known as the Cuban Missile Crisis.
33 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962): 13 days in October JFK PresidentIssue: Soviet missiles in CubaUS Response: Protests then a naval blockade to prevent Soviet ships from reaching CubaSoviet Response: Respect the naval blockade and remove missiles in Cuba(US would later remove Nukes from Turkey)
35 Cold War continuedCold War military contracts benefited Virginia’s economy.President Kennedy’s inaugural address became famous for this quote: “ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”Many Americans served in the military during the Cold War; the United States prevailed over the Soviet Union.President Kennedy was assassinated in 1963.
36 John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) Assassinated in Dallas, Texas in 1963 “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country!”
37 Vietnam WarThe United States began providing economic aid to the French in Vietnam as part of the American policy of containment.In the 1950’s and 1960’s, communist North Vietnam attempted to force a communist government in South Vietnam. The United States provided assistance to South Vietnam.United States military buildup in Vietnam increased during the administrations of Kennedy and Johnson
38 Vietnam WarAmerican military forces repeatedly defeated North Vietnam but were unable to force an end to the war through a limited war.America became divided over the Vietnam War. War protests took place, especially on college campuses.President Johnson decided not to run for re-election. Richard Nixon was elected president in 1968.
39 Vietnam War“Vietnamization” was Nixon’s plan to withdraw American troops and replace them with U.S.-supplied South Vietnamese forces. It was unsuccessful because South Vietnamese forces were unable to resist invasion from Soviet-supplied North Vietnam.A peace agreement was signed in 1973, and United States troops left Vietnam. In 1975, North Vietnam invaded South Vietnam, which was unable to resist. Vietnam became a united country under a communist government.
40 Vietnam WarVietnam war veterans returned home to encounter much indifference and hostility. It was several years before Vietnam veterans were honored.Today, in Washington D.C. , they have the Vietnam War Veterans wall which lists the names of the fallen soldiers from that conflict
41 Cold War continuedThe Soviet Union’s Cold War military buildup took a toll on their command economy.Soviet Republics began to push for independenceMikhail Gorbachev attempted to save the Soviet Union through glasnost and perestroika.
42 End of the Cold War: The fall of the Soviet Union Soviet Union economy collapsingSoviet republics push for independenceSoviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev attempts to save the USSRGlasnost: OpennessPerestroika: Economic ReformsToo little to late
43 Fall of Berlin WallPresident Reagan demands the Soviets tear down the Berlin WallFall of Wall signals end of Cold War