Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Financial Statements Accounting is the process of: identifying measuring, and communicating economic information To permit: informed judgements."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Financial Statements Accounting is the process of: identifying measuring, and communicating economic information To permit: informed judgements and decisions by the users of the information
Introduction to Financial Statements What are the Financial Statements? Statement of financial position (balance sheet) Statement of financial performance (profit and loss statement) Statement of cash flows Notes to the accounts And attached … Auditor’s Report Director’s Report Director’s Declaration
Changes to Financial Statements Profit and loss statement Statement of financial performance structural changes some items are in Notes, e.g. individual significant items More disclosure, e.g. cost of sales Introduction to Financial Statements Balance sheet Statement of financial position optional structural changes concepts redefined
Introduction to Financial Statements The statement of financial position we own – we owe = our wealth assets – liabilities = net assets, or shareholders equity/funds Issues for Directors – Solvency and liquidity Capital structure Is the risk profile appropriate? Accuracy of the data How can we increase net wealth?
Introduction to Financial Statements Current assets Cash Receivables Inventories Other Total current assets Non-current assets Receivables Investments Property, plant and equipment Intangibles Total non-current liabilities Total assets Statement of financial position – Assets Some issues: valuation of assets composition – the right assets earning capacity movements in assets
Introduction to Financial Statements Current liabilities Accounts payable Interest-bearing liabilities Provisions Other Total current liabilities Non-current liabilities Accounts payable Interest-bearing liabilities Provisions Other Total non-current liabilities Total liabilities Some issues: timing of repayments cost of borrowing contingent liabilities any special feature of liabilities? Statement of financial position – Liabilities
Introduction to Financial Statements Watch contingent liabilities ! Contingent liabilities are potential expenses which may or may not arise, depending upon future events. Typically these relate to the provision of guarantees, but can also arise from tax and legal claims. Pacific Dunlop had a vast contingent liability as a result of law suits in the US following the failure of its pacemaker leads.
Introduction to Financial Statements Share capital Reserves Asset revaluations Asset realisation General Foreign exchange Retained earnings Total equity Statement of financial position – equity Some issues: movements level of reserves dividend payouts Is equity increasing?
Introduction to Financial Statements Statement of financial performance revenue – expenses = OPBT OPBT – tax = OPAT OPAT – dividends = retained earnings for year Statement of financial position assets – liabilities = equity
Introduction to Financial Statements Issues for Directors – Statement of financial performance Quality / strength of revenue / profits Future maintainable earnings Profit margins Depreciation, amortisation Taxation (yes!) Significant items – size and effect positive (revenue) negative (loss, write-down )
Introduction to Financial Statements opening bank balances operating activities investing activities financing activities add or subtract cash flows from
Introduction to Financial Statements Directors’ duties re financial statements These are mandatory under the Corporations Act: Keep accounting records Have financial reports made out Have accounts audited Directors’ report Directors’ declaration Apply accounting standards
Introduction to Financial Statements Insolvent Trading Insolvency … unable to pay debts as and when they fall due Duties Defences What incurring a debt means Joint and several liability