Presentation on theme: "The Properties of Matter"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Properties of Matter Chapter 2The Properties of Matter
2 Volume of air activity p 36 I. What is Matter? (P )A. Matter- Matter is anything that has volume and mass.B. Volume-?Volume is the amount of space taken up, or occupied, by an object.1. Objects with volume cannot share the same space at the same time.2. Liquid Volume is measured in ?Liters, Milliliters, Ounces, and Gallons.Volume of air activity p 36
3 3. Measuring Liquid Volume uses what tool? Graduated cylinderMeniscus- Curve that is seen at the surface of a liquid in a graduated cylinder.4. Solid Volume is given in cubic units.How do you find the volume of a rectangular object?Length x width x heightWhat is the unit for the volume of solid objects?cm35. The volume of 1 cm3 of water at 4is equal to 1 ? (unit)ml(Why is volume measured at a specific temperature?)(Math Break P. 38 and Math & More TE38)Video – Measuring Volume – Courtesy:
4 Courtesy: http://www.ups.com/img/inf_inf_res_pre_wns_dw_m.gif Liquid VolumeSolid VolumeHeight = 7 cmLength = 10 cmWidth = 5 cmCourtesy:MeniscusV = 10 cm X 5 cm X 7 cmV = 5.55 mLV = 350 cm3Courtesy:
5 6. Gases fill whatever container they are in 6. Gases fill whatever container they are in. So the volume of a gas is always equal to the volume of the container that is holding it!Courtesy:Courtesy:
6 C. Mass- amount of matter something is made up of. 1. Mass is measured in grams, kilograms, milligrams, etc.2. Even things smaller than what your eyes can see are made of matter, therefore they have mass.3. An objects mass can only be changed by changing the amount of matter in the object.
7 D. Mass and Weight are not the same! 1. Gravity- Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses. Gravity causes weight.a. The amount of attraction between 2 objects depends on their masses and the distance between the two masses.b. Gravity is a pull.c. All matter has mass, so all matter experiences gravity.
8 II. Describing Matter (P. 43-51) A. Physical Property- A physical property of matter can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter.1. Examples of physical properties: color, odor, mass, volume, texture.Courtesy:
9 b. State (phase)- solid, liquid, or gas What temp it changes at 2. Physical properties that can help identify a substance are called characteristic properties:a. Thermal conductivity- ability to transfer heat from one area to another. How fast the heat transfers.b. State (phase)- solid, liquid, or gas What temp it changes atc. Malleability- ability to be pounded into thin sheets. How much force it takes to flatten or if it will flatten at alld. Ductility- ability to be drawn or pulled into a wire.e. Solubility- ability to dissolve in another substance. How much will dissolve in 100 ml of water at a set temp (note this is the most missed physical property!)f. Density- mass per unit volume. No two pure substances have the same density at a given temperature and pressure. How do you write the formula?What physical properties usually can not help you identify matter?Size, volume, shape, mass, color, texture
10 Density practice1.The density of Ivory soap is 0.9g/cm3 and the mass is 100 g. What is the volume?m/d=v 100/0.9 = 111.1cm32. The density of zinc is 7.13g/cm3. If I have 50 grams of it will it fit into a 50 ml container?m/d=v 50/7.13= 7 cm3 yes it will fit ( if the pieces are the right shape)3. The density of oxygen is g/cm3 if I have a container with a 500 cm3 capacity filled with pure oxygen what would the mass of that oxygen be?M=d*v x 500 = 0.65gMath Break P. 45, Math & More TE45, Math Skills WS 32: “Density”)
11 A lead ball has a mass of 454 g. The density of lead is 11. 35 g/cm3 A lead ball has a mass of 454 g. The density of lead is g/cm3. What is the ball's volume?40 cm3What is the mass of a bar of gold that measures 15 cm ´ 8 cm ´ 4 cm and has a density of g/cm3?gThe triangle method with mass on top is a good strategy for formula manipulation
12 B. Chemical Property- Chemical properties describe a substance based on its ability to change into a new substance with different properties.Examples of chemical properties: flammability, non-flammability, reactivity and oxidation.Rusting happens when iron reacts with oxygen. When elements react with oxygen it is called oxidation.Courtesy:Courtesy:
13 Any property that can be used to identify a substance is called…? Characteristic property.Note this is a vocab term for three chapters !Video– Properties of matter –Courtesy:(Discuss box on p. 48)
14 C. Physical Change- A physical change is a change that affects one or more physical properties of a substance, but does not form a new substance.1. Example: Break a piece of chalk. Changes size and shape, but it is still chalk.2. Example of a physical change: Melting, dissolving, freezing, cutting, bending, sanding.3. Most physical changes are easy to undo.How is a physical change different than a physical property?A physical change is when something actually changes with out changing what the substance is a physical property is something that can be measured or observed without any changes.
15 E. Chemical Changes- A chemical change occurs when one or more substances are changed into entirely new substances with different properties.1. Mixing a variety of substances to bake a cake is an example of chemical changes.2. Examples of chemical change: Spoiled milk, burning, rusting, Alka-Seltzer.3. Chemical change often causes color change, fizzing or foaming, energy release, odor.4. Chemical changes cannot be reversed with physical means. (Unbake a cake!!??)What is the difference between a chemical property and a chemical change?A chemical property is the ability to change .A chemical change is when it already changed