Presentation on theme: "Ass. Prof. Dr. Özgür KÖKALAN İstanbul Sabahattin Zaim University."— Presentation transcript:
Ass. Prof. Dr. Özgür KÖKALAN İstanbul Sabahattin Zaim University
Chapter Objectives 1. Define what HRM 2. Classify functions of HRM 3. Define how an employee is selected and trained 5-2
Human Resource Management HRM is defined as the function of attracting, developing and maintaining sufficient number of skilled employees to perform the activities to achieve organizational goals. Human resource concepts and techniques are important to all managers, because they work with the people.
Environmental Influences on HRM The organizational environmental factors influencing organizations and human resource management are classified into two categories: Internal environmental factors External environmental factors
Internal Environmental Factors Influencing HRM Internal environmental factors are the issues that can be found within organization’s internal environment. These factors are; Personal Factors: employee needs and wants, their expectations, common values, employees’ perceptions of their roles and motivation are some internal environmental factors Job Characteristics: different and various jobs in the organization have influence over HRM.
Interpersonal Relations: leadership styles, along with formal and informal groups affect the interpersonal relations in the organizations. Organizational Factors: top management, the size of organizations, environmental climate, and the characteristics and size of the industry affect HRM
External Environmetal Factors Some external factors influencing HRM are: Workforce Diversity: in demographic characteristics of the workforce in the community such as education level, gender distribution and age groups are examples of workforce diversity. External Sources of Human Resources: the pool from which the organization recuits its necessary qualified stafff such as vocational schools, universities, unions, human resource agencies. Competitors: an organization’s competitors will have the demand for the similar qualified workforce. Regulators: Governmet regulations on labor issues have great effects on HRM
Functions of HRM HR Planning HR Recruitment & Selection HR Training & Development HR Performance Appraisal HR Compensation Administration
HR Planning HR Planning is the determining of the right amount of people with the right qualifications at the right time and the right place to achieve companies pre-set goals.
Determining the Right Number of People When you determine the right number of employees for the organization, you should consider : Past Experiences: Effective HR managers who have experiences may forecast personnel needs. There are several ways to predict future employment needs such as trend ratio analysis. Evaluating workloads: every work has different workload. Standardized works have less workload than complex and unstructured works. Production technology: company’s production techniques require a different number of employees. The HR practice of the other companies
Determining the Right Qualifications of People Job analysis: provides information about the jobs currently existing in the work place and the adequate knowledge, skills and abilities that employees need to perform these jobs. Job Analysis Methods: to provide information about the jobs we need data. There are some ways to collect data. These are: Interview method: Experts conduct interviews with employees in groups or individually who do the jobs. Structured questionnaire method: questionnaries about job carefully prepared and conducted to take data. Observation method: Data about the jobs are collected by expert observers through their watching the employees at work Diary method: daily entries are made by workers of every activity in which they engage.
Job Description: is the written statement that describes the analyzed jobs based on a job analysis conducted in the workplace. Job Specification: provides the management on the needed qualifications, skills and talents that employees must own for fullfiling their fuctions properly and effecttively. Job evaluation: states the relative value of the jobs existing in the organization. It is linked with compensation management.
HR Recruiting and Selection Recruiting, is defined as the candidate search and find process With the recruitment process, the HRM finds out the appropriate candidates for the vacant jobs in the organization. HRM finds the necessary candidates in and out of the organization. The main purpose of recruitment process is to build up a pool in which the organization selects candidates whenever needed. There are two important employee sources in recruitment process. These are: Interior sources Exterior sources
Interior Sources It can be defined as the internal pool of potential candiates who are currently working in the company. HRM finds the people for vacant position from among the employees who are already working in the company through transfering or promoting. Advantages of using interior sources: Increase in loyalty Employee knows organization Less expensive.
Exterior Sources It is a pools of potential employees outside of the organization. Some typical external sources : Universities (career days) Professional chambers Headhunter Newspaper or Internet HRM agencies ( Yenibiriş, Adecco) Transfers Advantages of Exterior Sources New methods, procedures, and techniques may be transferred into the company. New management approaches can be injected.
Selection Process of Employess from Interior Sources Career Planning; is defined as the process by which one selects career goals and the path to these goals. Career can be explained as all jobs that exist in one’s whole working life. Career path is the sequential pattern of tasks and jobs that form one’s career.
Selection Process of Employees from Exterior Sources The important steps in selecting candidates from exterior sources are as follows: Application Form: it provides basic information about candidate such as name, marital status, experiences… Test: the objective of tests is to find out the talents, knowledge, skills and qualification of the applicant. There are many different kinds of test applied by organization. But all tests can be gathered into 4 groups: Cognitive Ability Test / Intelligence Test Test for Physical Abilities Test for Measuring Personality and Interests Achivement Test
Interviews: an interview is defined as a conservation with a purpose to get to know each other. Interview may be classified under three categories: Structured / Unstructured Interview Interviews according to their purpose Interviews according to their content. Medical / Physical Examination: some jobs require certain physical abilities from the employees. Especially for the top key position it is important for the organizations to employ healthy people. Reference Checks and Background Investigations: they are made to verify the information stated in the application form and/or collected during interviews. Employment decision: the last stage of the selection process is employment decision by both sides. It should be made by the department head.
Applicatio n Form Tests Interviews Medical / Physical Examinati on Reference Checks Emplyment Decision
HR Orientation and Training Orientation is defined as a procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firm. It is generally made jointly by HRM and department in which the employee will work It may be 2-3 hours or 2-3 days
Although they have similar meaning in public eye, education and training carries some distictions in meaning Education is to provide general knowledge to people for several task undertakings that they may perform in the future. Training is defined as providing spesific knowledge, skills to the people that are necessary to perform the spesific jobs and tasks. The main purpose of HR training is to provide necessary skills and knowledge to employees to improve their qualifications.
Type of Training Program They are mainly two groups of employees. Managers (top, middle, lower level managers) White- blue color staff. It is also called the non- managerial staff.
Non –Managerial Level Training Programs There are two main types of non- managerial level training On- the - job training methods: they relate to the individual’s learning his tasks while he actually performs. Apprenticeship training Job instruction training Off- the – job training methods: They are the techniques that enable the employees to be trained out of the usual workshop and officies Conferences, Classroom groups Audio visual techniques Simulation methods Internet- based training
Managerial Level Training Program There are two main types of managerial level training On- the - job training methods: they relate to the individual’s learning his tasks while he actually performs. Coaching method Understudy assigment method Job rotation Off- the – job training methods: They are the techniques that enable the employees to be trained out of the usual workshop and officies Case study method Management game method Role playing method