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Nutrition and Energy.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition and Energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition and Energy

2 A balanced diet combined with regular exercise aid in the overall general health of the body
Humans require energy to function. The total energy used by an individual depends on the type and intensity of the activity and the energy required for basic life processes. The amount of energy required to maintain minimum essential life functions is called basal metabolic rate, or BMR. Humans obtain the energy required to carry out basic life processes from the food they consume. Food energy is measured in calories. The amount of food energy (calories) a person requires varies with body weight, age, sex, activity level, and natural body efficiency.

3 * If one consumes more calories than the body uses, the excess is stored and weight is gained. Weight loss occurs when fewer calories are taken in than the body needs.* To burn food for the release of energy stored in it, oxygen must be supplied to cells, and carbon dioxide removed. The heart/lung system work together to deliver oxygen rich blood to all of the organs, tissues and cells of the body. Lungs take in oxygen for the combustion of food and they eliminate the carbon dioxide produced. The circulatory system moves all these substances to or from cells where they are needed or produced, responding to changing demands.

4 Metabolism and BMR Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions involved in storing fuel (food) molecules and converting fuel (food) molecules into energy. In order for the body to use the fuel energy stored in food, the food must first be digested and combined with oxygen (oxidized). Three factors contribute to the overall metabolic rate of the body. The Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) accounts for about 60% of all energy used by the body. Daily physical activities such as walking and moving around account for another 30% of the energy used by the body. Finally, 10% of the energy used by the body is used to digest and process (oxidize) food.

5 Exercise and Energy In order for systems to work properly, energy from the cells must be transformed into a useable form for cells and ultimately, organs, to perform work. These systems work together in order for the body to function properly and maintain a balance. Regular exercise is important to maintain a healthy heart/lung system, good muscle tone, and bone strength. Regular exercise and physical activity increases the heart rate providing more oxygen for the body to use for processing food. A healthy body requires a delicate balance between a healthy diet and physical activity.

6 Energy in = Energy out In order for energy balance to occur, Energy In = Energy Out. This means that caloric intake equals caloric output. Food components (protein, fat, and carbohydrate) taken into the body have the following fates: they can be used to fuel metabolic activities and physical activities, they can be incorporated into growing body tissues, and they can be stored as fat.

7 What is a calorie? Calories
The energy obtained from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats is measured in units called calories.

8 Calorie Calculations Carbohydrates 1g = 4 calories
Protein 1g = 4 calories Fat 1g = 9 calories Alcohol 1g = 7 calories -Write this down in the notes box!!

9 Sample Calculation = 9 calories _________________________
A slice of bread has 9g of carbohydrates, 2g of protein, and 1g of fat. 9 grams carbohydrates x 4 calories/gram = 36 calories + 2 grams protein x 4 calories/gram = 8 calories + 1 gram fat x 9 calories/gram = 9 calories _________________________ Total calories = 53 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS WORKSHEET

10 How does the body use energy?
For the body to use food (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) for energy and building materials, the food must first be digested into molecules that are absorbed and transported to cells. The cells then turn the food into energy (ATP) through cellular respiration and metabolism. The energy is then put out of the body through heat, CO2, and H20 (sweat).

11 MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image – a place setting for a meal. Before you eat, think about what goes on your plate or in your cup or bowl.


13 lipids protein carbohydrates carbohydrates

14 The New Pyramid - Nutrition
What are nutrients? Essential substances that your body needs in order to grow and stay healthy Six categories of nutrients: Carbohydrates Proteins Minerals Vitamins Fats Water © 2005 JupiterImages Corporation The New Pyramid - Nutrition Career Development Software, Inc © 2005

15 Do you know the MOST IMPORTANT nutrient?
It’s Water! 60%-80% of the human body is WATER! Function: Assists with the transport of materials in the body by making up most of the liquid part of blood (plasma), helps regulate body temperature, and helps break down food in the digestive system Food sources: vegetables, fruit, milk


17 © 2005 JupiterImages Corporation
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Structure and function: Carbohydrates are sugars and starches that the body uses for ENERGY! PLANTS are the major source of carbohydrates in the food we eat. Simple Carbohydrates Sugars that are quickly digested and provide a BOOST of energy for the body Foods with LOTS of sugar: oranges, milk, cookies, candy The New Pyramid - Nutrition Career Development Software, Inc © 2005 © 2005 JupiterImages Corporation


19 © 2005 JupiterImages Corporation
Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates Starches that are composed of many sugars linked together They provide the body with long- term energy since they are digested more slowly than sugars. Foods with LOTS of starch: rice, beans, potatoes © 2005 JupiterImages Corporation The New Pyramid - Nutrition Career Development Software, Inc © 2005

20 Glucose is a small enough molecule to enter the blood stream.
The digestive system breaks/ tries to break carbohydrates down into single sugar molecules Glucose is a small enough molecule to enter the blood stream. Now its known as ‘blood sugar’ – and is the universal source of energy.

21 As blood sugar levels rise, special cells in the pancreas churn out more and more insulin, a hormone that signals cells to absorb blood sugar for energy or storage. As cells sponge up blood sugar, its levels in the bloodstream begin to fall.

22 liver stomach pancreas
That’s when other cells in the pancreas start making glucagon, a hormone that tells the liver to start releasing stored sugar. This interplay of insulin and glucagon ensure that cells throughout the body, and especially in the brain, have a steady supply of blood sugar. liver stomach pancreas

23 © 2005 JupiterImages Corporation
Protein Proteins Structure: Proteins are made from many amino acids connected together in different arrangements. Function: Provide the building materials your body needs to grow and repair itself Amino acids- are used in every cell of your body to build the proteins you need to survive. © 2005 JupiterImages Corporation 9 of the 20 amino acids are called essential amino acids because you must obtain them from the foods you eat since your body cannot make them.


25 © 2005 JupiterImages Corporation
Fat Functions: ENERGY source for the body (more than carbs and proteins) Help protect and cushion vital organs as well as joints Insulate the body Structure: Fats belong to a group of organic compounds called lipids which are substances that do not dissolve in water. Fatty acids are the building blocks of fats. © 2005 JupiterImages Corporation



28 Unsaturated fats: Contain fatty acids that are missing hydrogen atoms
At room temperature, they are typically in liquid form. They are less harmful to the circulatory system than saturated fats. Foods with a lot of unsaturated fat: canola, safflower, and peanut oils -MONOUNSATURATED FATS- olive oil, peanut oil, and canola oil -POLYUNSATURATED FATS- corn oil, soybean oil, and seafood. -balancing of the 2 is important for cardiovascular health

29 Saturated fats: Contain fatty acids with the MAXIMUM amount of hydrogen atoms At room temperature, they are typically in solid form. Diets with TOO MUCH saturated fat have been known to cause heart disease. Foods with a lot of saturated fat: beef fat, egg yolks, dairy products -ANIMAL FATS -lard and dairy products -too much can lead to heart disease -TRANS FAT -when manufacturers add hydrogen to the fat molecules in vegetables oils. -foods that contain these stay fresher longer

30 Cholesterol- is a type of fat found in your blood
Cholesterol- is a type of fat found in your blood. Your liver makes cholesterol for your body. You also can get cholesterol from the foods you eat.

31 Lets Review! Carbohydrates: These provide the body with most of the energy it needs. Eating whole-grain breads and cereals is a good way to make sure your body gets enough carbohydrates. Proteins: These are used for the growth and repair of cells, tissue (including muscles), and organs. Our bones and teeth also need protein, which is found in meats, fish, eggs, beans, and nuts. Fats: “Good” fats store energy for emergency use and can improve heart health. Sources include avocado, olive oil, nuts, and seeds. Fiber: This is the part of food that your body does not break down in digestion. Among other things, it lowers the risk of certain diseases. It is found in plant foods like cereals, breads, fruits, and vegetables.

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